The copper core is usually 22 awg or 24 awg as

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The copper core is usually 22-AWG or 24-AWG, as measured on the American wire gauge standard. There are two types of twisted pairs cabling 1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) 2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)
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1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) UTP is more common. It can be either voice grade or data grade depending on the condition. UTP cable normally has an impedance of 100 ohm. UTP cost less than STP and easily available due to its many use. There are five levels of data cabling Category 1 These are used in telephone lines and low speed data cable. Category 2 These cables can support up to 4 mps implementation. Category 3 These cable supports up to 16 mps and are mostly used in 10 mps. Category 4 These are used for large distance and high speed. It can support 20mps. Category 5 This is the highest rating for UTP cable and can support up to 100mps. UTP cables consist of 2 or 4 pairs of twisted cable. Cable with 2 pair use RJ-11 connector and 4 pair cable use RJ-45 connector. Characteristics of UTP low cost easy to install High speed capacity High attenuation Effective to EMI 100 meter limit Advantages of UTP Easy installation Capable of high speed for LAN Low cost Disadvantages of UTP Short distance due to attenuation 2. Shielded twisted pair (STP) It is similar to UTP but has a mesh shielding that’s protects it from EMI which allows for higher transmission rate. IBM has defined category for STP cable. Type 1 STP features two pairs of 22-AWG Type 2 This type include type 1 with 4 telephone pairs Type 6 This type feature two pairs of standard shielded 26-AWG Type 7 This type of STP consist of 1 pair of standard shielded 26-AWG Type 9 This type consist of shielded 26-AWG wire Characteristics of STP Medium cost Easy to install Higher capacity than UTP Higher attenuation, but same as UTP Medium immunity from EMI
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100 meter limit Advantages of STP: Shielded Faster than UTP and coaxial Disadvantages of STP: More expensive than UTP and coaxial More difficult installation High attenuation rate Fiber Optics Fiber optic cable uses electrical signals to transmit data. It uses light. In fiber optic cable light only moves in one direction for two way communication to take place a second connection must be made between the two devices. It is actually two stands of cable. Each stand is responsible for one direction of communication. A laser at one device sends pulse of light through this cable to other device. These pulses translated into “1’s” and “0’s” at the other end. In the center of fiber cable is a glass stand or core. The light from the laser moves through this glass to the other device around the internal core is a reflective material known as CLADDING. No light escapes the glass core because of this reflective cladding.
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