CONCLUSION
Through the experiment, I have understood the concept of two-port network and able to set up a
two-port circuit and perform the calculation of parameters using the measured voltages and
currents values and compared it with the theoretical results. Furthermore, I also understood that it
is inevitable to has slight difference in values between the experimental results and theoretical
results due to the errors occurred during the experiment process and calculation, for example
systematic error caused by the environment and instrument, gross error caused by the human and
random error which is the combination of many errors. Thus, it is important for us to select the
suitable apparatus and methods for the experiment and be careful and patient when undergoing
the experiment and calculations so that the errors will be minimize. However, it is not necessary
for the experimental results to be perfect matched to the theoretical results because it is
impossible, as long the experimental results are in tolerance range, the results are considered as
accurate.
REFERENCES
1.
Christopher K. Alexander and Matther N.O. Sadiku (2016)
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.
6
th
ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
11

2.
William H. Hayt, Jr., Jack E. Kemmerly and Steven M. Durbin (2002)
Engineering Circuit
Analysis.
6
th
ed. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Appendix
Given the two-port network be like:
Formula and method used to calculate z-parameter:
For the calculation of z-parameter, first we should open the input port (port 11’), which will
results in the value of I
1
becomes 0A and allows us to calculate the values of Z
12
and Z
22
by
finding the effective voltage and current values from the given resistors values. For the
calculation of Z
21
and Z
11
, simply repeat the steps used in the previous calculation by open the
output port(port 22’) and I
2
become 0A. The calculations of z-parameters are simplfy and shown
in below.
V
1
= Z
11
I
1
+ Z
12
I
2
V
2
= Z
21
I
1
+ Z
22
I
2
Formula and method used to calculate y-parameter:
For the calculation of y-parameter, first we should short the input port (port11’), which will result
in the value of V
1
becomes 0V and allows us to calculate the values of Z by finding the effective
voltage and current values from the given resistors values. For the calculation of Z
21
and Z
11
,
simply repeat the steps used in the previous calculation by open the output port(port 22’) and V
2
become 0V. However, be noted that as the port been shorted, the current will choose to flow
through the short circuit part and some resistors have to be neglected in the calculation. The