Physical Science 8th grade (1).pdf

Whether or not you believe in the placebo effect it

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Whether or not you believe in the placebo effect, it is important for all experiments to be objective. Using a placebo helps keep experiments with human subjects objective because it separates the actual effects of a medicine from effects caused by how a patient feels about a medicine. A doctor’s attitude about a medication can also effect how it works in a patient. Using the double-blind technique is a second way of maintaining objectivity because it separates the doctor’s own opinions form the results of the experiment. Questions: 1. Why are drugs tested in double-blind studies? 2. What is the placebo effect? 3. What is a hypothesis? 4. How is a “double-blind” study set up? Chapter 2 Connection
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46 Guess the Gram Mass is the measure of the amount of matter an object contains. An object’s mass is related to its size (volume) and the density of the material from which it is made. Common units for measuring mass include the gram and kilogram. One kilogram is equal to 1000 grams. In this activity you will be using a triple beam balance to measure mass and estimate the masses of everyday objects. Materials: Balance capable of measuring 300 grams +/- 0.1 grams Assorted items such as coins, paperclips, rubber bands, washers, marbles, popcorn kernels, etc. What you will do 1. Make sure your balance is calibrated properly and shows a reading of zero when it is empty. Make adjustments to the thumb screw if necessary. 2. Copy the table shown to the right. 3. Choose an object from your assortment that you believe has a mass close to one gram. Record the name of the object in the first row of the table. 4. Use the balance to measure the mass of the object to the nearest tenth of a gram. Record the mass in the table in the first try column. 5. Unless your mass was exactly one gram, make a second attempt to find one or more objects with a mass of one gram. Record the object(s) you selected, measure the mass, and record the mass. 6. Repeat with all the other masses in the table. Applying your knowledge a. Did the accuracy of your estimations increase as the activity went on? b. Calculate your error in estimating the mass of the 10 gram object on your first try. Calculate your error in estimating on your second try. c. Estimate the mass of the following objects in grams: •your textbook •an unsharpened pencil •a sheet of notebook paper •a compact disc d. Estimate your mass in grams and in kilograms. e. If you wanted to estimate the mass of a car, would you use grams or kilograms? Mass (g) Object(s) Mass (g) first try Object(s) Mass (g) second try 1 5 10 25 50 100 250 Chapter 2 Activity
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C HAPTER 2 E XPERIMENTS AND V ARIABLES 47 Chapter 2 Assessment Vocabulary Select the correct term to complete the sentences. Section 2.1 1. A mathematical picture that may show a pattern between two variables is a ____.
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