Mutualists allows herbivorous plant feeding animals

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Mutualists Allows herbivorous (plant-feeding) animals to digest cellulose and other low-quality plant tissues. Termites Ungulates chewing the cud Lagomorph coprophagy
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General characteristics 7. Symbionts !!!!!!! Mutualists Mealybug endosymbionts with endosymbionts.
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The microbiome As we learn about bacteria, single- celled eukaryotes, and fungi, keep this in mind
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TAXONOMY is problematic Relationships obscured by billions of years of evolution Also obscured by unique bacterial means of recombination (more later). Grouped primarily by DNA sequence data. Immense genetic/genomic diversity.
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Current taxonomy is stabilizing Two Domains: Archaea : extremophiles (mostly), ancient, probable progenitors of eukaryotes. Bacteria : most commonly-encountered prokaryotes. Note that Prokaryote is paraphyletic . Why?
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Prokaryotes
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Characteristics Cell Surface • Motility • Genome Reproduction & Growth Metabolic Diversity Nitrogen Metabolism Oxygen Relationships
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Cell Surface Archaea : plasma membrane of ether- lipids (unique in life). Bacteria : a sugar polymer - peptidoglycan
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Cell Surface Cell wall is often modified with structures to adhere to substrate. Many secrete a sticky capsule or adhere by fimbriae (ocasionally called pili).
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Motility ~half the species can move. 1. Flagella most common ( different structure from eukaryote) 2. Spiral filaments: spirochetes corkscrew 3. Gliding over slimy secretions (via flagellar motors without filament) Capable of taxis (photo, chemo, geo, etc.)
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Genome Small genomes: ~1/1000th DNA content of eukaryotes. No membrane enclosed nucleus. DNA concentrated in nucleoid region.
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Genome One major chromosome, double stranded DNA molecule in ring. Sometimes several small DNA rings of few genes: plasmids. Replicate independently of main chromosome. Permit recombination via conjugation (later). Involved in resistance to antibodies/antibiotics.
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Genome Broadly, replication & translation of genetic info like that of eukaryotes; differ in details and simplicity. Used in first DNA recombinant research. Genetic recombination : Not like eukaryotes (e.g. chiasma & crossing over)!! Transformation Conjugation Transduction
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Genome: Recombination via transformation DNA taken up from the environment
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Genome: Recombination via conjugation Direct transfer of DNA between cells.
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