0314 191 a transition metal survey transition metals

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03:14 19.1 a transition metal: survey transition metals show great similarity within a given period and group complex ions- the transition metal ions are surrounded by a certain number of ligands  (behave like lewis bases) first-row transition metals representativeof the other transition series and because they have great practical  significance when lose an electron, it goes from s orbital first instead of d because less energy in d  orbitals than s 19.2 first row transtiitoin metals color and magnetism arise from d electrons on the metal ions 19.3 coordination compounds colored and often paramagnetic  counter ions anions or cations needed to produce a compound with no net charge ligand- neutral molecule or ion having a lone pair that can be used to formal bond to a  metal ion lewis-acid- electron pair acceptor lewis-base- electron pair donor formation of ligand and a metal is similar to lewis acid and base interaction because  electrons are transferred coordinate covalent bond monodentate ligand- lgand that can form one bond to a metal ion bidentate, chelating, polydentate rules for naming coordination comounds
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03:14 cation before anion ligands named before the metal ion o is added to root of an anion chloro, bromo, iodo prefixes mono, tri, di, denote number of simple ligands oxidation state of central metal is designated by roman numerals listed in alphabetical order ions with negative charge have –ate siffix 19.4 isomerism isomers- when tow or more species have same formula but exhibit different properties structural- same atoms but one or more bonds differ coordination- composition of complex ion varies linkage- composition is the same but point of attachment vaires stereoisomer- all bonds are the same but the spatial arrangment differs cis- next trans- opposite chiral- objects that havenonsuperimposable mirror images enantiometers-rotational differences 19.5 bonding in complex ions: localized electron model 19.6 crystal field model energies of d orbital
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03:14 octahedral complexes lobes are pointed directly  dz2, dx2-y2 lobes are ppointed in between dxz, dyz, dxy splitting of the 3d orbital energies explains color and magnetism of complex ions of first row transition metals Edelta= hc/wavelength 19.7 molecular orbital model when d is added to MO energy level diagram order is 1sigS 3sigP 2sigD 5(dz2, dx2-y2, dxz, dxy, dyz)D 1sigS(anti) 3sigP(anti) 19.8 biological importance of coordination complexes protein is a large molecule assembled from amino acids which have structure with 4  ligands ( H2N, H, R, and COOH) attached to C cytochromes- principle electron transfer molecules in respiratory chain are iron-
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