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Broadly speaking, clinical significance refers to the practical importance of research results- that is, whether the effects are genuine and palpable in the daily lives of patients or in the management of their health. Clinical significance has not received great attention in nursing research.Clinical significance for group-level results is often inferred on the basis of such statistics as effect size indexes, confidence intervals, and numbers needed to treat. However, clinical significance is most often discussed in terms of effects for individual patients- especially whether they have achievea clinically meaningful change.Definitions and operationalization’s of clinical significance for individuals typically involve a benchmark or threshold to designate a meaningful amount of change. This benchmark is often called a MIC, which is a value for the amount of change score points on a measure that an individual patientmust achieve to be classified as having a clinically important change.MICs cannot legitimately be used to interpret group means or differences in means. However, the MIC can used to ascertain whether each person in a sample has or has not achieved a change greater than the MIC and then a responder analysis can be undertaken to compare the percentage of people meeting the threshold in different study groups. In their discussions of study results, researchers should themselves point out known study limitations, but readers should draw their own conclusions about the rigor of the study and about the plausibility of alternative explanations for the result. Unit 12 Activity 2 Levels of Measurement�Determine the highest possible level of measurement for each of the following variables.Remember the four major levels of measurement according to Loiselle & Profetto-McGrath (2004) are:Nominal (N) involves using numbers simply to categorize characteristics�Ordinal (O)ranks objects based on their relative standing on a specific attribute.�Interval (I) involves specifying the ranking of objects on an attribute and the distance between �those objects.Ratio (R)scales with a meaningful zero thus provide information about the magnitude of an �attribute.1.Score on a 15 item Likert scale (I)2.Political affiliation (N)3.Time to first postoperative analgesic (R)4.Body temperature (I)5.Nursing unit employed on (N)6.Hours spent in labor (R)46
7.Membership in a union (N)8.Level of education (O)9.Pulse rate (R)10.Status on a scale of well-being poor, fair, good�(O)Unit 12 Activity 3 - Pop Quiz After reading the chapter on analyzing quantitative data in your course textbook, take the following pop quiz to test your understanding.1.The calculation of a mean is not meaningful if using data from which of the following levels of measurement?a)ordinalb)ratioc)nominal and ordinal *d)interval 2.