2 literature review 21 definitions of

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needed to achieve desired performance results. 2. Literature Review 2.1. Definitions of Transformational Leadership General information regarding the definition of leadership indicates that this process involves the ability of one individual to motivate and influence others (de Oliveira Rodriguez & Ferreira, 2015). Ideally motivation and influence occur in a manner that is positive and respectful, contributing to the achievement of specific goals (de Oliveira Rodriguez & Ferreira, 2015). While this basic definition of leadership has consistently been used as a foundation for evaluating this process, scholars have developed various frameworks aimed at understanding the theoretical foundations of leadership in practice (Ghasabeh, Reaiche, & Sossay, 2015). Trait, behavioral, situational, transactional, and transformational leadership styles are just a few of the theories that have been proposed to evaluate the rudiments of leader behavior and the basis for motivation and influence (Ghasabeh et al., 2015). Even though an understanding of the continuum of leadership theories provides insight into the evolution that has occurred in this field, an examination of transformational leadership and its definition does provide a culminating description of efforts made to study leadership practice. As described by Ghasabeh et al. (2015) transformational leadership focuses on satisfying the basic and higher-order needs of followers through inspiration to achieved desired goals. Transformational leadership is often juxtaposed against transactional leadership in which transactions form the basis of follower motivation (Kim & Yoon, 2015). Transformational leadership differs in that it creates a deep internal desire for motivation that is not sustained through transactions; rather motivation for the follower is sustained through true inspiration or transformation in the desire to achieve goals (Kim & Yoon, 2015). 2.2. Characteristics of Transformational Leadership Although the basic definition of transformational leadership provided above facilitates comprehension of the process and how transformational leadership differs from other types of leadership practice, a review of what has been noted about this paradigm clearly indicates that there are specific mechanisms through which transformational leadership operates to
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International Journal of Human Resource Studies ISSN 2162-3058 2016, Vol. 6, No. 2 91 provide motivation for the follower. Specifically, research indicates that transformational leadership is comprised of the ―Four I’s‖ including: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual simulation, and individualized consideration (Tharnpas & Boon-itt, 2015). Each of these elements contributes to the transformational process through which effective and positive leadership is achieved (Caillier, 2014). Information regarding the role and function of each of the Fou r I’s indicates that specific elements of follower development are cultivated in order to create a holistic foundation for leadership practice (Caillier, 2014). Idealized influence involves the ability of leaders to
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  • Fall '18
  • Xiao Wu

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