Energy_Storage_Technologies.pdf

Operation this system has an extremely fast response

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Operation This system has an extremely fast response time and be on the order of a few milliseconds if the pumps are in continuous operation. This however creates a large parasitic loss, so, if the required response time is on the order of a few minutes, the pumps can be powered down and the stacks drained during periods of inactivity. Maintenance For this system the plumbing is the number one concern so that the pumps, pipes, and valves are working properly to prevent system failure. Environmental Impact As with most systems that involve plumbing, these devices are prone to leakage, and because of the dangerous nature of the electrolytes, this presents an environmental concern. Other Resources Other sources include [2], [3], and [7]. Summary of Device Parameters The following table summarizes the available technoeconomic parameters for VRB bat- teries from a number of studies from 2000-2010. All monetary values have been adjusted to 2010 dollars. If a value is marked with “-” either the quantity was not found in the corresponding report or the way it was presented was inconsistent with the format used here. For example, the EPRI-DOE report gives total cost in $/kW or $/kWh, not a formulation that takes into account both, simultaneously. Source: Schoenung EPRI Gonzalez Schoenung Chen 2003 [5] 2003 [2] 2004 [3] 2008 [6] 2009 [7] Techno. Params. Roundtrip Efficiency [%] 70 60-75 67-81 - 75-85 Self-discharge [%Energy per day] 0.2 - - - small Cycle Lifetime [cycles] - 14000 - - 12k+ Expected Lifetime [Years] 10 10-15 10 - 5-10 Specific Energy [Wh/kg] - - - - 10-30 Specific Power [W/kg] - - - - - Energy Density [Wh/L] - - - - 16-33 Power Density [W/L] - - - - - Costs Power Cost [$/kW] 210 - - 175 600-1500 Energy Cost [$/kWh] 710 - 200-220 350 150-1000 PCS Cost [$/kW] 120-600 370-610 270-580 - - BOP Cost [$/kW] 36 120 - 30 - O&M Fixed Cost [$/kW-y] 24 33-65 - - - 29
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Chapter 4 Storage Technology Summary This final section is meant to consolidate the parameters of each of the devices into one page for side-by-side comparisons and for use in modeling. What follows in the last section is a summary of the parameters found for each technology discussed, using the referenced sources, most importantly [2,3,5–7]. The ranges of each parameter in this summary correspond to the minimum and maximum values found for each parameter across all references. This may not be the ideal method for consolidation for every purpose, which is why for each technology the compilation of parameter values were also presented. Any assumptions that were made regarding parameter values can also be found in the individual technology sections. 30
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Storage Technology Summary Summary of Device Parameters What follows is a summary of the parameters found for each technology discussed, using the referenced sources, most impor- tantly [2, 3, 5–7]. The ranges in this summary correspond to the minimum and maximum values found for each parameter across all references. Mechanical Storage Electrical Storage PHS CAES FES-LS FES-HS CAP ECC SMES Techno. Params. Roundtrip Efficiency [%] 70-85 57-85 70-95 70-95 60-70 90-98 90-98 Self-discharge [%Energy/day] 0 0 100 1.3-100 40 20-40 10-15 Cycle Lifetime [cycles] N/A N/A 20k-100k 20k-100k 50k 10k-100k 100k Expected Lifetime [Years] 30-60 20-40 15-20 15-20 5 20 20-30 Specific Energy [Wh/kg] 0.5-1.5 30-60 10-30 10-30 0.05-5 2.5-15 0.5-5 Specific Power [W/kg] 0 0 400-1.5k 400-1.5k 100k 500-5k 500-2k Energy Density [Wh/L] 0.5-1.5 3-6 20-80
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