4 people take longer to travel a long mental distance

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4. People take longer to ‘‘travel’’ a long mental distance, in contrast to a short mental distance. This finding is apparently not due to experimenter expectancy. 5. When judging the shapes of mental images or visual images, people take longer to make decisions when the two stimuli have very similar physical shapes. This conclusion applies to simple shapes (e.g., the hands on a clock), as well as complex shapes (e.g., the shapes of U.S. states). 6. Visual images can interfere with visual perception; this conclusion applies to the perception of figures such as trees, as well as line segments. 7. In several studies, the participants are instructed to create a mental image for an ambiguous figure; they may have difficulty reinterpreting this mental image so that they see a different figure. 8. Another vision-like property of mental images is enhanced acuity when a target is flanked by imaginary masks; this type of research is important because demand characteristics would be minimal. 9. The majority of research supports the analog viewpoint, as described by Stephen Kosslyn and his colleagues, but some people—on some tasks— apparently use a propositional code, as described by Zenon Pylyshyn. 10. According to neuroscience research, visual imagery activates about 70% to 90% of the same brain regions that are activated during visual perception. Furthermore, people with prosopagnosia cannot recognize human faces visually, and they also cannot create a mental image of a face. 11. Meta-analyses on spatial ability show small to moderate gender differences in spatial visualization and spatial perception; gender differences are somewhat larger in mental rotation, but these differences can be reduced by experience in spatial activities. 10. Summarize the research on auditory imagery in the areas of pitch and timbre. Whyis the study of auditory imagery important?

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