and as freeware from government laboratories and many of these codes can be

And as freeware from government laboratories and many

This preview shows page 12 - 15 out of 164 pages.

and as “freeware” from government laboratories, and many of these codes can be implemented on anything from a PC (often, even a laptop) to modern parallel supercomputers. In fact, it is not
Image of page 12
1.2. THE STUDY OF FLUIDS 7 fluid rotating inner cylinder difficult to find CFD codes that can be run over the internet from any typical browser. Here we display a few results produced by such codes to indicate the wide range of problems to which CFD has already been applied, and we will briefly describe some of the potential future areas for its use. The figure in the lower left-hand corner provides a direct comparison with experimental results shown in an earlier figure. The computed flow patterns are very similar to those of the experiment, but in contrast to the experimental data the calculation provides not only visualization of qualitative flow features but also detailed quantitative output for all velocity component values and pressure, typically at on the order of 10 5 to 10 6 locations in the flow field. The upper left-hand figure displays predictions of the instantaneous flow field in the left ventricle of the human heart. Use of C p 1.00 - 1.00
Image of page 13
8 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION CFD in biomedical and bioengineering areas is still in its infancy, but there is little doubt that it will ultimately dominate all other analysis techniques in these areas because of its generality and flexibility. The center figure depicts the pressure field over the entire surface of an airliner (probably a Boeing 757) as obtained using CFD. It was the need to make such predictions for aircraft design that led to the development of CFD, initially in the U. S. aerospace industry and NASA laboratories, and CFD was the driving force behind the development of supercomputers. Calculations of the type shown here are routine today, but as recently as a decade ago they would have required months of CPU time. The upper right-hand figure shows the temperature field and a portion (close to the fan) of the velocity field in a (not-so-modern) PC. This is a very important application of CFD simply because of the large number of PCs produced and sold every year worldwide. The basic design tradeoff is the following. For a given PC model it is necessary to employ a fan that can produce sufficient air flow to cool the computer by forced convection, maintaining temperatures within the operating limits of the various electronic devices throughout the PC. But effectiveness of forced convection cooling is strongly influenced by details of shape and arrangement of circuit boards, disk drives, etc. Moreover, power input to the fan(s), number of fans and their locations all are important design parameters that influence, among other things, the unwanted noise produced by the PC. Finally, the lower right-hand figure shows pressure distribution and qualitative nature of the velocity field for flow over a race car, as computed using CFD. In recent years CFD has played an ever-increasing role in many areas of sports and athletics—from study and design of Olympic
Image of page 14
Image of page 15

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 164 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors