who start earlier in particular those who started receiving ESL services at 8

Who start earlier in particular those who started

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who start earlier, in particular those who started receiving ESL services at 8-11 years old (Artigliere, 2019). This demonstrates that early intervention is key for these students to attain native-level fluency, which for the majority of ELL students is theoretically possible. However, early intervention is not the only factor. Equally important is the support that is provided by both the school and teacher, and so is the understanding of what English proficiency means. These all come together to determine what students who start ELL will go on to become successful and how to increase this number. Why do English Language Proficiency tests matter? Testing for English Language Proficiency (ELP) was first mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, which “created guidelines for assessment policies and procedures, mandating that ELLs be tested annually with state ELP exams” (Artigliere, 2019, p. 3). In theory, having mandated ELP tests is a positive, but put into practice it is much more complicated. Before NCLB mandated that states provide ELP
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tests with specific metrics, each state had used their own metrics, tests, and policies. This created research conditions which made it so that pre-NCLB there was virtually no research that “examined the impact of classification status and subsequent ELP performance” (Artigliere, 2019, p. 3). Our understanding of how LTELLs and ELLs learn English is incredibly enhanced now, and “these tests are critical measures of ELP and the results are used in high-stakes decisions which determine programming, instruction and curriculum” (Artigliere, 2019, p. 3). Aiding students already designated LTELLs One of the most important things to recognize is that students who are categorized as ELL or LTELL are grade-level proficient in a language at the time that they begin their career, it is simply not English. Rather than treat them the same as very young students and patronize them by being overly helpful, teachers need to recognize that “LTELLs are emergent bilinguals and as such, should receive bilingual educational opportunities. There is abundant and well- established research which is clear on the benefits of bilingual education for ELLs” (Artigliere, 2019, p. 7). To ignore or attempt to replace the language that the students come in knowing is to deny that they have any knowledge at all. This requires more knowledge on the part of the teacher
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because to teach a bilingual class requires both being bilingual and knowing how to teach in both languages. Not having the resources to provide this leads to delayed development in both languages, as shown in one study where it was found that “students…were also several grade levels behind in both Spanish and English (three years in English and 3.5 in Spanish)” (Artigliere, 2019, p. 8). If schools are able to provide resources that allow their LTELL and ELL students to learn in bilingual classes rather than straight ESL classes, then they have more success long-term when compared to only being taught in English (Artigliere, 2019).
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  • Spring '14
  • Teaching English as a foreign language, Language proficiency, LTELL, Artigliere

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