Indeed one of the criticisms of the equality and

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Indeed, one of the criticisms of the equality- and diversity- focused Kick It Out campaign in the United Kingdom is its lack of attention to antisexism agendas in comparison with opposing racism and homophobia, despite national initiatives having been in place for some time. It was in 1993, for example, that Let s Kick Racism Out Of Football was launched by the U.K. Commission for Racial Equality and the Professional Footballers Association (it subsequently changed to Kick It Out in 1997), with the intention of eradicating racism and racist language among fans by implement- ing written codes of conduct for attending matches ( Cleland & Cashmore, 2014 ). Even though Kick It Out has promoted greater race and gender diversity (most notably surrounding homophobia) in English football, stadia remain public spaces that are, largely, an unfriendly landscape for women ( Pope, 2017 ). Of course, it is not only U.K. venues that harbor sexism and other forms of misogynistic behavior. For example, Bacchi ( 2018 ) reported how the ultras at SS Lazio in Italy handed out yers stating that the stand they occupied at the Stadio Olimpico was a sacred place and that women were not welcome in the fi rst nine rows of seats, as they were trenches reserved for men only. 2 In New Zealand, Reilly ( 2018 ) reported fi ndings from the independent Muir Report into the culture at New Zealand Football, which described the body as a boys club with a tolerance of inappro- priate banter. It also found that no women were represented on the senior leadership team at the organization, with just 21% of its staff base being female. In Zimbabwe, Chiweshe ( 2014 ) found that football songs and chants routinely expressed misogy- nistic messages that celebrated men s sexual domination and degraded women, leading to some women avoiding parts of the stadium or refraining from going to matches altogether. Likewise, in their analysis of men s football in Denmark, P fi ster et al. ( 2013 ) discussed how the number of women in fan groups decreases in the face of expressed misogyny and violence and that all female fans have to cope with some level of sexism in their practice as fans. (Ahead of Print) Ambiguities in Fan Re ections on the Gender Order 3
Despite the application of hegemonic masculinity to gender studies, Connell and Messerschmidt ( 2005 ) have also recognized that masculinity is not fi xed or static, and they have acknowledged how other theories have emerged that illustrate more inclusivity, resistance, and choice from within hegemonic traditions (see Anderson, 2009 ). As noted by Cooky and Messner ( 2018 ), some men in sports settings are now showing resistance to expressions of traditional hegemonic forms of masculinity, with some scholars also claiming that football and other sports are not the broadly homoge- nous experiences for boys and men they were once widely assumed to be (see Cleland, 2018 ; Magrath, 2017 ). It is also very clear that the increasing use of Black male models and popular gay imagery in recent men s fashion and mainstream advertising has less to do with traditional, White heteromachismo, strength, and virility than it

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