Be aware of the concept of the maximum lifespan Species specific biological

Be aware of the concept of the maximum lifespan

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Be aware of the concept of the maximum lifespan Species-specific   biological   limit   to   length   of   life.   Little   increases   in   life expectancy for those 65+. Recognize hereditary and environmental/lifestyle factors that contribute to sustaining a long life o Gender: women outlive men  o SES: increases with education and income  o Lifestyle factors: Behaviors, job, social supports  o Governing policies and programs: health care, housing, social services  o Environmental factors: more influential with age  o Heredity: Longevity runs in the family  Distinguish between activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) o Know what these are and also the difficulties they can pose for older adults - ALDS- Activities of Daily Living is basic self-care task required to live on your own just as bathing, dressing, getting out of bed, eating. After the age of 75, 9% of Americans have difficulty carrying this out  - IADS-   Instrumental   Activities   of   Daily   Life   are   tasks   necessary   to conduct   the   business   of   daily   life   and   also   require   some   cognitive competence,   such   as   telephoning,   shopping,   food   preparation, housekeeping   and   paying   bills.   About   17%   cannot   carry   out   these activities.  Be aware of the effects of aging on the nervous system (brain weight decline, neuron loss, changes   to   the   autonomic   nervous   system   that   make   it   less   efficient,   how   the   brain compensates for losses) o Loss of brain weight starts in the 50s and amounts to as much as 5 to 10% by age 80, due to withering of the myelin coating on fibers, loss of synaptic connections, death of neurons, and enlargement of ventricles.  o Neuron loss in  Prefrontal cortex (executive function)
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Corpus Callosum (links cortical hemispheres)  Cerebellum (balance)  Hippocampus (memory and spatial awareness)  Know how our sensory systems are impacted (vision, hearing, taste, smell, touch) o Visual Impairments and Aging  Increased sensitivity to glare  Impaired color discrimination  Poor dark adaptation  Decreased death perception  Lower visual acuity  Cataracts  Muscular degeneration Loss of self-confidence o Hearing impairments and aging Declines in detecting sounds- high frequencies, soft sounds throughout frequency range, speech perception: Greatly affected  For most, not disruptive to daily life until 85+ Lower self-efficacy, safety and enjoyment  o Taste and smell Declines in taste buds of tongue Difficult in recognizing familiar foods  Declines in odor sensitivity  - Decrease in smell receptors  - Loss of neurons in brain regions  o Less sensitive to touch Difficulties with leisure, daily activities depending on fine judgements in texture Recognize how the major body systems are affected by aging (cardiovascular, respiratory, immune) o Cardiovascular/ respiratory Heartbeat less forceful; reduced maximum heart rate, blood flow
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