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Defining ground rules parties exchange initial

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Defining Ground Rules - parties exchange initial proposals or demands - determine… Who will do the negotiating? Where will it take place? What time constraints? To what issues will negotiation be limited? …etc 3. Clarification & Justification - explain, amplify, clarify, bolster, justify ur original demands - educate & inform each other on the issues, their importance, how each arrived @ their demands - provide the other party w/ any documentation that helps support ur position 4. Bargaining & Problem Solving - actual give & take in, try to hash out an agreement - concessions need to be made by both parties 5. Closure & Implementation (handshake) - formalizing agreement, develop procedures necessary for implementation & monitoring - major negotiations need to list out specifics in formal contract (e.g. buying real estate, job offer) CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN NEGOTIATION Gender Differences in Negotiating Style I. Women are more inclined to be concerned w/ feelings & perceptions (long-term view), while men more focus on resolving matter @ hand II. Men view bargaining session as separate event, while women view it as part of the overall relationship w/ individual (maintain relationships after bargaining is over as strategy) III. Women tend to want all parties in negotiation to be empowered (less likely to have negotiation where 1 person is clearly winner, the other loser), while men more likely to use power as part of
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P ART 3: I NTERACTING E FFECTIVELY bargaining strategy IV. Men more often use dialogue to persuade other parties (more aggressive), while women more likely use dialogue to achieve understanding - no overall difference in effectiveness of men & women in negotiation but: men perform better when negotiations were over male-stereotypical tasks (e.g. airplanes) women……………………………………….over female-stereotypical tasks (e.g. child care) - however, no one style preferable to the other; best style depends on situation - belief that women are nicer than men in negotiations → result from lack of power held by women, not gender - managerial women: less confidence, less satisfied w/ their performance (women may unduly penalize themselves by refusing to negotiate w/ confidence when necessary) - outcomes of negotiations for women & men also seem to differ (e.g. men offered higher starting salaries than women) Cultural Differences in Negotiating Style France - like conflict - often gain recognition & develop reputations by thinking, acting against others - tendency to take a long time in negotiating agreements - aren’t very concerned about whether their opponents like/dislike them China - believe negotiations never end - negotiate to develop relationship & commitment to work together (rather than tie up loose end) Japan - ALSO negotiate to develop relationships & commitment to work together US - impatience & desire to be liked - often taken advantage by foreign negotiators through their dragging out negotiations & making friendship conditional on final settlement - cultural context influences amnt & type of preparation for bargaining relative emphasis on task vs. interpersonal relationships tactics used the place where negotiation conducted
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