Neo confucianism stressed obedience and compliance of

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-Neo-Confucianism stressed obedience and compliance of subject to ruler +The most influential of the Neo-Confucian philosophers was Zhu Xi (1130-1200 CE) Agricultural and Commercial Revolution -Under the Song, it became possible to pay taxes using money rather than grain -Song eliminated the conscription of labor -Phenomenal increase in agricultural production -The most important economic innovation of the Song was the widespread use of money -A new group of wealthy commoners - the mercantile class -- arose as printing and education spread -Song China saw the explosion of urban populations Song Ships -Unprecedented acceleration of foreign trade -The Song had the best ships in the world at the time -Navigation was done through the use of charts and compasses *The Southern Song carried on trade with the rest of Asia by means of maritime shipping networks +Overseas trading of fine porcelain and other objects began in China during the Song Dynasty Decline of the Song Dynasty -The Song used gunpowder as a weapon in siege warfare -The Song were not militarily powerful -Military consisted of either the poor, uneducated peasants, mercenaries or allies -Diplomacy was the favored form of dealing with enemies -In 1279, the Yuan, or Mongol empire, began +In 1210 CE the Mongols began to assault the Song (Mongol) Yuan Dynasty 1279-1350 CE
-Mongols were pastoral and tribal people who lived in the Gobi Desert in what is now Outer Mongolia -Mongolian Empire extended west to east from Poland to Siberia, and north to south from Moscow to the Arabian peninsula and Siberia to Vietnam. +The Yuan Dynasty, a part of the Mongol Empire Timuchin or Chinghis (Genghis) Khan 1155-1227 CE *The leader of the Mongol invasion of Southern China was Chinghis Khan -His interest in conquering China was for its great wealth ---------- -Chinghis Khan was one of the greatest military innovators in human history -With his small army of 120,000 men he managed to conquer a vast territory -Mongols fought on horseback with incredible efficiency Mongol Military Power -Chinghis Khan was ruthless towards people who resisted the advances of his army *The Mongols achieved military success through brute force, psychological intimidation, and diplomacy with Westerners -When Chinghis Khan dies, the Mongol armies were poised to conquer Hungary Kubilai Khan Reign 1260-1294 CE -In 1260, Kubilai Khan, a grandson of Chinghis Khan, became the Great Khan -In 1264, he relocated his capital to Beijing -In 1271 he adopted a Chinese dynastic name... Governance Yuan Dynasty -Mongols and the Chinese spoke different languages, had a different form of dress and many different customs -All important government posts were monopolized by Mongols +Extract of the letter of Kubilai Khan to Philip IV of France, in the Mongolian script, dated 1289 -Wanted to know about culture of other nations and wanted to trade with them Yuan Dynasty Culture -As the Chinese nobility were not allowed to be involved in government, they were free to pursue art and literature -Certain key Chinese innovations, such as printing techniques, porcelain production, playing

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