Evidence of populations is usually found in 'layers' belonging to a particular period of settlement. In other words, the
artifacts found at the first layer are usually not as old as artifacts found in deeper layers. The identification of the
'context' of each find is vital to enable the archaeologist to draw conclusions about the site and the nature and date of
its occupation.Bottom of Form
Various Theoretical Perspectives
In cultural anthropology, structuralism is the school of thought developed by the French anthropologist
, in which cultures, viewed as systems, are analyzed in terms of the structural
relations among their elements.
According to Lévi-Strauss's theories, universal patterns in cultural systems are products of the invariant structure of
the human mind. Structure, for Lévi-Strauss, referred exclusively to mental structure, although he found evidence of
such structure in his far-ranging analyses of kinship, patterns in mythology, art, religion, ritual, and culinary traditions.
In analyzing kinship terminology and kinship systems, the accomplishment that first brought him to
preeminence in anthropology, Lévi-Strauss suggested that the elementary structure, or unit of kinship
which all systems are built is a set of four types of organically linked relationships: brother/sister,
husband/wife, father/son, and mother's brother/sister's son.
Lévi-Strauss stressed that the emphasis in structural analysis of kinship must be on human consciousness, not on
objective ties of descent or consanguinity.
In social sciences, functionalism is the theory based on the premise that all aspects of a society —-
institutions, roles, norms, etc.-—serve a purpose and that all are indispensable for the long-term survival
of the society.