Gender identity Early understanding of oneself as mal or female starts at 2 or

Gender identity early understanding of oneself as mal

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Gender identity •Early understanding of oneself as mal or female starts at 2 or 3 years old. •Kohlberg’s theory: Gender labelling, stability, constancy. •Gender labelling begins when they can label self as boy or girl. •They start to understand who they are, what they like. •By about 3 to 4 years, develop gender stability, understanding that gender is stable over time. -EX: Knows he or she will always be a boy or a girl. -But, may still think boy who wears dress is a girl. -Idea of gender tied to concrete superficial differences such as clothing and hair. •By about 4 to 7 years, develop gender constancy, gender is invariant despite superficial changes in appearance or behavior. Gender roles and stereotypes 24
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•How do children learn about and adopt gender roles? -Perceive world through gender lens, paying attention to and approach gender-typical activities, events, objects. -Reinforces gender roles and stereotypes. •Gender segregation: Boys and girls voluntarily choose to play with own gender and actively avoid gender. -May further increase gender-typical behavior. •Why gender segregation? -Different play styles. EX: Boys more rough-and-tumble play, emphasis on dominance; girls play safe, emphasis on cooperation, intimacy. -Knowledge of own and other’s gender. -Some socialization processes by parents, teachers (but mostly strongly driven by peers). EX: Children who violate gender-norms are often teased. Nature or nurture •nature: -Male-female differences consistent with evolutionary perspectives. -Young monkeys show similar boy-girl toy preferences. -Gender development really comes from socialization. -Some small brain behavioral differences between sexes. •Hormones are powerful -Fetuses are “by default” female; release of androgens in XY male begins masculinizes genitalia. -CAH (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia): Higher than normal levels of androgens in females; tend to be more tomboy. -AIS (Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome): XY baby develop externally as female, identify self as female, usually condition revealed in adulthood. Are male but feel like females, insensitive. 25
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Middle childhood Concrete operations Piaget’s stages •Sensorimotor (0-2). •Preoperational (2-7). •Concrete operations (7-11). •Formal operations (11-15/20). Concrete operations •No longer have limitations of Preoperational stage. •Can use mental operations: Cognitive actions that can be performed on objects or ideas. -Understand that events can be seen in different perspectives. -Things can be reversed. -Can consider two dimensions or perspectives at same time and integrate them. •But; -Thinking is limited to “concrete”, the tangible, here and now. -Have trouble with abstract and deductive reasoning. -EX: If you hit a glass with a feather, the glass will break. You hit the glass with a feather the glass will break; however, since it is not true children cannot make sense of it. You are just looking at the pure logical question but children will only see that it could never happen (concrete thinking).
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