Function as consonants (from constant clusters) Cannot function as center of syllable Distinguished by the place of articulation and position of tongue Voiced bilabial/labial – velar glide o With, swim, mowing queen twilight Voiced alveolar glide o Beautiful, feud, use, yell, you Voiceless bilabial/labial-velar glide o Which, where, what, whale, why o Voiceless ‘w’ for those dialects in which witch and which do not sound the same o Syllabic consonants Consonants that function as the nucleus of a syllable in English Occur in word final unstressed syllables Occur in stressed syllables as well Representations: /m , n , l , r/ ( vertical line underneath) /em en el er/ (upsidown e) o Flap (also called ‘tap’) similar to a stop but without a buildup of air pressure behind the place of articulation, and therefore no release burst [upsidown hook/candicane symbol] (voiced alveolar flap) bu t er, wri t er, la dd er ON QUIZ NEEDS AN IPA FLASHCARD o Shaded columns are voiced, not shaded are voiceless o Each column is a place: goes from front to the back of mouth o Manners are in rows: most consonant-like (most closure) to most vowel-like least closure/least consonant-like 2.3 English Vowels Vowel – a speech sound characterized by open configuration of the vocal tract, with vibration of the vocal cords but without audible friction Vowel distinctive features o Height o Frontness/backness o Roundness o Tenseness
13 American English Vowels Articulation o Tongue height High vs mid vs low o Tongue advancement Front vs. central vs. back 2 central vowels, “shwa”(upsidown e) and “wedge” both in abut Wedged in stressed syllables Shwa in unstressed syllables ON QUIZ Back vowels 5 o Lip rounding Rounded vs. unrounded Always patterned Back high and mid vowels Boot, good, coat, caught Back and not low... must be rounded All other vowels are unrounded Heed, hid, hayed, head, had, hard, Hudd, ahead o Tongue tenseness Tense vs. lax 4 tense vowels [i] Heed lax pair [capital I with things on top and bottom] bit [e] hayed lax pair head [epsilon] [o] hoed lax pair hawed, caught [backwards c] [u] who’d lax pair [u with a bar on top upside down horseshoe] hood Vowel Space o To get a sense of tongue height Contrast Beat, bet, bat o To get a sense of advancement Bet but bought o Rounding He (unrounded), who (rounded) o Tenseness Beat(tensed), bit(laxed) a should be a without top hook so like lowercase a dipthong o complex/two-part vowel sounds o travels across chart o In homework give syllable o Need flashcards for boat and bay
transition from one vowel to another in the same syllable bye Bout Boy Boat Bay A different dialect or accent might change the transcription o I head a meal in the mill (Upstate SC) o I had to beg for a bag Transcribe these in Standard American English In some dialects two sounds merge, or lose their distinctiveness Other dialects keep contrasts SAE lost: o I will marry merry Mary (Philly/Jersey) o Which witch is the wickedest (Appalachian US) Syllabification Onset Rhyme o
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- Spring '08
- Vowel, Articulatory