proposed factors load, and also how well the model fits the data. Because the full battery of questions used here approached 100 variables, the goal of the initial exploratory analysis was also to reduce the batteries to manageable numbers by eliminating problematic variables.Several variables were found to be worded awkwardly, double-barreled or simply too confusing, and were eliminated when they did not scale or load with the proposed dimensions.1 The next step was to test how well the proposed underlying dimensions fit the overarching concepts of “bridging” and “bonding” social capital. The goal here was not to create subscales for each underlying dimension, but to test whether those dimensions were in fact the constituent elements of bridging and bonding social capital.An initial, large exploratory factor analysis of 36 items was tested to check this prediction for both the online and offline versions. The solution yielded nine factors, withall of the variables loading strongly in clusters with either bridging or bonding, but never strongly with both. This was considered evidence that the bridging variables did in fact belong together and were distinct from the bonding ones, and vice versa. The proposed dimensions loaded as expected, with the notable exceptions of out-group antagonism and homogeneity. The out-group antagonism variables loaded consistently apart from the other proposed bonding variables, regardless of combination, rotation or item 1 As expected, the questions involving mobilization of a wide group (e.g. “I could organize a broad group of people to take part in a protest”) did not load with bonding, and were dropped. One measure of out-group antagonism involving people from a different country was dropped because it did not scale well with the others and had a low inter-item correlation.279
elimination. Norris’ homogeneity questions loaded weakly and had low inter-item correlations and so were considered less strongly related to the bonding factor. In sum, the initial exploratory steps provided evidence that the two overarching concepts were in fact different, and that the variables were correctly aligned, but that out-group antagonismand homogeneity were not in fact an element of bonding social capital. The nine-factor solution was too unwieldy for general use. The next step was to use confirmatory factor analysis to look at particular items to improve the loadings, reliabilities and measures of fit for the predicted two-factor model. Items were scrutinizedand eliminated one by one on a basis of redundancy, lower inter-item correlations,
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- Spring '17
- stacy braiuca