(direct their gaze to see what you were looking at/pointing to)- expected by 1 year/12 monthsin normal development(closer objects easier at younger age)objectparentchildoften absent or extremely delayed in children on spectrum (doesn’t come naturally)
-if joint attention is not established by 18-24 months, major autism risk alert-not as many joint attention studies done in older children, so unclear how these risk factors change- therefor, lack of joint attention early on is a good indicator of ASD later onInterventions-can social skills really be taught?- we don’t know the long term effects, how generalizable or realistic it is (may be trainable, but still not natural/”real”)-a number of interventions involving these early skills including eye gaze, imitation, and joint attentiom- virtual reality training, computer game training, etc. -have generally shown positive effects, but have mostly examined more short-term effects rather than long term outcomes-may depend on age as to how effective they areMeasurements-are notstandardized tests of social abilities -experimental tasks are often used, but these are not standardized - too difficult to compare across studies- often will look at pre and post experimental tasks to check for improvementRating Scales-tests to measure social abilities-SRS-SCQParent Interventions-ADI-Vineland Adaptive Behavior ScalesObservational Measures-ADOS (for diagnosis, most commonly used)- better at distinguishing between normal development vs. ASD rather than quantifying the social impairments- gives a severity score, but not the best measure, because not designed for quantification(difficult to measure social abilities, so difficult to study)either done by the individual if older, or parent if younger
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