direct their gaze to see what you were looking atpointing to expected by 1

Direct their gaze to see what you were looking

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(direct their gaze to see what you were looking at/pointing to) - expected by 1 year/12 months in normal development (closer objects easier at younger age) object parent child often absent or extremely delayed in children on spectrum (doesn’t come naturally)
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- if joint attention is not established by 18-24 months , major autism risk alert - not as many joint attention studies done in older children, so unclear how these risk factors change - therefor, lack of joint attention early on is a good indicator of ASD later on Interventions - can social skills really be taught? - we don’t know the long term effects, how generalizable or realistic it is (may be trainable, but still not natural/”real”) - a number of interventions involving these early skills including eye gaze, imitation, and joint attentiom - virtual reality training, computer game training, etc. - have generally shown positive effects, but have mostly examined more short-term effects rather than long term outcomes - may depend on age as to how effective they are Measurements - are not standardized tests of social abilities - experimental tasks are often used, but these are not standardized - too difficult to compare across studies - often will look at pre and post experimental tasks to check for improvement Rating Scales - tests to measure social abilities - SRS - SCQ Parent Interventions - ADI - Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Observational Measures - ADOS (for diagnosis, most commonly used) - better at distinguishing between normal development vs. ASD rather than quantifying the social impairments - gives a severity score, but not the best measure, because not designed for quantification (difficult to measure social abilities, so difficult to study) either done by the individual if older, or parent if younger
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