an employer might have. Some of these involve pre-hire objectives such as filling a certain number of job openings and attracting applications from certain types of individuals. Other objectives are post-hire in nature (e.g., attracting individuals who will perform at a certain level, recruiting individuals who will have a certain retention rate). Having established recruitment objectives, an organization should be able to develop a coherent strategy for filling open positions. As detailed in Fig.1, among the questions an employer might address in establishing a recruitment strategy are: (a) When to begin recruiting? (b) What message to communicate to potential job applicants? and (c) Whom to use as recruiters? The answers to these and other strategy-oriented questions (see Fig. 1) obviously should be consistent with the recruitment objectives previously established.
Having carefully considered the strategy-oriented questions listed in Fig. 1, an organization next would carry out recruitment activities (e.g., posting job openings on job boards such as Monster.com, hosting receptions at college campuses) suggested by the strategy upon which it has decided. The final stage of the recruitment process involves an evaluation of recruitment results. More specifically, an employer should compare its recruitment objectives (i.e., what it hoped to accomplish) against its recruitment outcomes (i.e., what it actually accomplished). Doing such should allow the employer to learn from its experiences so that it can more effectively recruit in the future (this learning is reflected by the feedback arrows in Fig. 1). A key part of Fig.1 is the box labeled “Intervening Job Applicant Variables”. Although some of these variables (e.g., what makes a position attractive) have received attention, many other variables (e.g., attracting applicant attention, applicant self-insight) have received almost no attention from recruitment researchers (Breaugh et al., 2008). A consideration of the job applicant variables portrayed in Fig. 1 should play a central role in how an employer plans its recruitment process. For example, if an employer is interested in attracting the attention of individuals who are not currently looking for jobs, many commonly used (and commonly studied) recruitment methods (e.g., newspaper advertisements, job fairs) may not be particularly effective. Similarly, if an organization hopes to improve person–job/organization fit by providing realistic
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- Fall '12
- Michael R. Carrell, Christina Heavrin, J.D.