13and14wsandnotes

# Mass part total x 344 x 100 8 nacl in the solution

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If 30 g of NaCl is mixed with 344 g of water, what is the % NaCl in the solution? % mass = (Part/ total) X 100 = (30 / 30 + 344) X 100 = 8% NaCl in the solution. How would you make a 40% NaCl solution? ( How many grams of water and how many grams of NaCl would you use?) Answer: 40 g of NaCl and 60 g of water. The Dilution Equation : M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 Type 1 problem Starting with 345 ml of 3 M HCl, how many ml of 2 M HCl can be made? M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (3M)(345 ml) = (2M)(V 2 ) V 2 = 517.5 ml Type 2 problem How many ml of water must be added to 400 ml of 4 M HCl to make 2.6 M HCl M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (4M)(400ml) = (2.6M)(V 2 ) V 2 = 615.4 ml This is not the answer to this question. 615.4 ml is the total volume of 2.6 M HCl that can be made. Since we started with 400 ml of 4 M HCl, the amount of water added is 615.4 ml - 400 ml = 215.4 ml of water. 4

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Worksheet Chapter 14 1. Which of the following are Arrhenius Acids? (a) KOH (b) HF (c) H 2 SO 4 (d) KCl 2. Which of the following are Arrhenius Bases? (a) KOH (b) NH 3 (c) HCl (d) Ca(OH) 2 3. Which of the following are Bronsted-Lowry Acids? (a) KF (b) HNO 2 (c) KOH (d) HCl 4. Which of the following is a Bronsted-Lowry base but not an Arrhenius base? (a) KOH (b) NH 3 (c) NaOH (d) Fe(OH) 3 5. Complete these reactions for acids and bases in water: (a) HCl (aq) (b) HCl + H 2 O (c) HNO 3 (aq) (d) HF + H 2 O (e) NH 3 + H 2 O 6. Label each as acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base. (a) HBr + H 2 O H 3 O + + Br - (b) H 3 O + + CN - HCN + H 2 O
5 (c) HNO 2 + H 2 O H 3 O + + NO 2 - 7. For each acid, identify the conjugate base. (a) HF, _______ (b) HCl , __________ (c) HNO 3 , ___________ 8. For each base, identify the conjugate acid. (a) NH 3 ,_________ (b) NO 2 - , __________ (c) ClO 2 - , __________ 9. List seven strong acids: 10. List the strong bases? 11. The word strong with acid or base means______________________________. 12. A pH above 7 means___________________________________ 6

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Chapter 14- Notes 1. Bronsted/Lowry and Arrhenius definitions acid and base p 547-549 Acid Base _________________________________________________________________ Arrhenius Gives H + in water Gives OH - in water Bronsted Lowry Gives H + in water Accepts H + in water Notice, the definition for acid is the same for both the Arrhenius and Bronsted Lowry acid. It must give an H + when put in water. Therefore, all Arrhenius and Bronsted Lowry acids must start with H (hydrogen). The definition for a base is different. All Arrhenius bases must end in -OH (hydroxide)such as NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH) 2 , Al(OH) 3 . All Arrhenius bases are Bronsted Lowry acids, but there are many other things that can accept an H + besides -OH. Here are the lists of things that are bases under the Bronsted Lowry definitions but not under the Arrhenius definition: (1)
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