o Develop better theories about causes and consequences o Public policy: knowing where and how to direct economic resources
o Education and therapy: knowing what kind of info and advice to give I^3 Theory o Instigation: exposure to a trigger that creates an urge to aggress o Impellance: personality (dispositional aggressiveness) and situational factors o Inhibition: dispositional or situational factors that encourage a person to resist the urge to aggress o IPV: Intimate Partner Violence • Abused spouses don’t always leave o Study of 51 battered women over 2.5 years • 43% left abusive partner unattached or in non-abusive relationship • 23% remained with partner but no violence for at least 1 year • 33% still in an abusive relationship Reasons People Stay • Economic reasons • Still in love with them, they aren’t always abusive • More likely to leave when violence causes injury and is escalating • Characteristics that are related to being less likely to leave an abusive relationship: • Being older • Viewing violence as more normative
• Depression, anxiety, lack of efficacy • Religion – believe divorce is a sin • Financial dependence • Embarrassment • Investment Model Sexual Violence • Rape: forced sexual activity without the partner’s consent • Does not have to involve physical force o 17% of women and 3% of men are rape victims in their lifetime o 44% of victims are under age 18 • 80% under age 30 • 73% of sexual assaults are committed by a non-stranger • 28% are committed by an intimate o Less than 50% of rapes reported to police o One in five college students in US suffers an assault in college Reactions to Assault • Emotional Shock: calm, numb o Can lead people/officials to think that the assault was not serious or upsetting o Police are less likely to believe rape victims than other victims
• Embarrassment, shame, and guilt • Anxiety, fear, powerlessness • PTSD • Depression, confusion Rape Myths • Circumstances in which force is seen as more justifiable o Man pays for the date o Woman asks man out o Woman goes to the man’s apartment or asks him to hers o Woman is drunk o Woman is wearing revealing clothes o Woman and man have had consensual sexual contact before • Holding these beliefs is linked to being more likely to commit rape and to blame victims of rape for their rape Discussions of Rape • Sexual Objectification: equating a person’s worth with their appearance and sexual function o Particularly true for women
• Victim Blaming: suggesting that a victim of a crime (or circumstance) is at least partially responsible for it o What clothing were you wearing? Were you drunk? o Lerner (1960) found people derogated a person receiving shocks o People often blame themselves o Belief in a Just World: the idea that the things that happen to you happen for a reason, even if they are horrible things • We want to believe that bad things happen to people because they brought them onto themselves in some way • Vice versa for good things
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- Spring '08