o Develop better theories about causes and consequences o Public policy knowing

O develop better theories about causes and

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o Develop better theories about causes and consequences o Public policy: knowing where and how to direct economic resources
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o Education and therapy: knowing what kind of info and advice to give I^3 Theory o Instigation: exposure to a trigger that creates an urge to aggress o Impellance: personality (dispositional aggressiveness) and situational factors o Inhibition: dispositional or situational factors that encourage a person to resist the urge to aggress o IPV: Intimate Partner Violence Abused spouses don’t always leave o Study of 51 battered women over 2.5 years 43% left abusive partner unattached or in non-abusive relationship 23% remained with partner but no violence for at least 1 year 33% still in an abusive relationship Reasons People Stay Economic reasons Still in love with them, they aren’t always abusive More likely to leave when violence causes injury and is escalating Characteristics that are related to being less likely to leave an abusive relationship: Being older Viewing violence as more normative
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Depression, anxiety, lack of efficacy Religion – believe divorce is a sin Financial dependence Embarrassment Investment Model Sexual Violence Rape: forced sexual activity without the partner’s consent Does not have to involve physical force o 17% of women and 3% of men are rape victims in their lifetime o 44% of victims are under age 18 80% under age 30 73% of sexual assaults are committed by a non-stranger 28% are committed by an intimate o Less than 50% of rapes reported to police o One in five college students in US suffers an assault in college Reactions to Assault Emotional Shock: calm, numb o Can lead people/officials to think that the assault was not serious or upsetting o Police are less likely to believe rape victims than other victims
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Embarrassment, shame, and guilt Anxiety, fear, powerlessness PTSD Depression, confusion Rape Myths Circumstances in which force is seen as more justifiable o Man pays for the date o Woman asks man out o Woman goes to the man’s apartment or asks him to hers o Woman is drunk o Woman is wearing revealing clothes o Woman and man have had consensual sexual contact before Holding these beliefs is linked to being more likely to commit rape and to blame victims of rape for their rape Discussions of Rape Sexual Objectification: equating a person’s worth with their appearance and sexual function o Particularly true for women
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Victim Blaming: suggesting that a victim of a crime (or circumstance) is at least partially responsible for it o What clothing were you wearing? Were you drunk? o Lerner (1960) found people derogated a person receiving shocks o People often blame themselves o Belief in a Just World: the idea that the things that happen to you happen for a reason, even if they are horrible things We want to believe that bad things happen to people because they brought them onto themselves in some way Vice versa for good things
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