Religion no longer used to explain the world new

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Understanding Management
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Chapter 2 / Exercise Step 1
Understanding Management
Daft/Marcic
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Religion no longer used to explain the world, new secular way to look at the world Science as opposed to religion  alternative way to understand the world, to explain it and to bring solutions Technological, social, political, scientific and religious changes led to a new mode of thinking It is during this time that modern social theory was born, sociology emerged during the mid-19 th century The Development of Sociology: The Scientific Method France Germany England Emile Durkheim Anomie Social integration & suicide Max Weber Verstehen Religion and capitalism Harriet Martineau Auguste Comte Positivism Karl Marx Alienation Class conflict August Comte Coined the term “sociology” o Greek, logos = “study of” o Latin, socius = “being with others” Sociology should study social statistics (relationships among major social institutions) and social dynamics ( how societies change over time) Philosophy and Positivism o Positivism: the world can only be understood through scientific inquiry o Objective bias-free knowledge o Knowledge through science, not religion
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Understanding Management
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Chapter 2 / Exercise Step 1
Understanding Management
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o Methodological dimension: the use of the scientific method to understand the world o Socio-political dimension: apply that knowledge to make the world a better place Aim  to discover “laws” of human behaviour Though he coined the term, sociology and is considered the founder of sociology, he is hardly recognized for it today Karl Marx Class conflict: the struggle between capitalists and the working class, inevitable and necessary o Capitalists own and control means of production (land, tools, factories) o Proletarian are the exploited class, mass of workers who do not own means of production; they have to sale their labour in order to survive Class: a group of people with similar material resources (defined by people’s relationship to the means of production or capital) o Conflict between the classes is the central force of history o Exploitation of workers results in alienation o Alienation: feeling of powerlessness from other people and from oneself, but also an objective condition that can be scientifically explained o The alienation of workers contribute to the inevitable proletarian revolution: working class would become more aware of its exploitation, acquire class consciousness, unite and overthrow the capitalist system o Workers would now control the means of production…equality and freedom, establish a free an classless society Economy determines every aspect of society; central force in social change Capitalism: source of poverty and inequality Emile Durkheim Founder of sociology in France Best known for founding sociology as a scientific discipline and for defining the boundaries of its subject matter Human behaviour socially based; individuals are shaped by social forces The Rules of Sociological Method (1895) o Social Facts : patterned ways of acting, thinking and feeling, exist outside of any one

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