A population has four alleles at a gene A in the frequencies shown below After

A population has four alleles at a gene a in the

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6) A population has four alleles at a gene A, in the frequencies shown below. After many generations, genetic drift eliminates all but one of these alleles. What is the probability that A2isthe allele that goes to fixation?Allele:A1A2A3A4 Frequency: 0.41 0.3 0.24 0.05 A. 0.09B. 0.25C. 0.3D. 0.5
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1. For a rare allele, what proportion of the population with the allele is a heterozygote? Genotype: Aa aa Frequency: 0.25 0.01
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1. For a rare allele, what proportion of the population with the allele is a heterozygote? Key point: For a rare recessive allele, heterozygotes are far more common than homozygotes. Genotype: Aa aa Frequency: 0.25 0.01 Proportion of carriers who are heterozygotes: = 0.96
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3. What would the allele frequencies be? (calculating from genotype frequency) AA Aa aa 0.10 0.42 0.48 A 0.2 0.8 B 0.31 0.69 C 0.24 0.76 A (p) A (q)
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Calculating allele frequencies from genotype frequencies AA Aa aa 0.10 0.42 0.48 = freq( AA ) + ½ freq( Aa ) p = freq( A ) q = freq( a ) = freq( aa ) + ½ freq( Aa ) = 0.10 + ½ (0.42) = 0.31 = 0.48 + ½ (0.42) = 0.69 Note: If there are only two alleles, p + q always equals 1.0
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4. Your friend is attempting to set up a ‘Munchkin’ cat breeding operation. When she crossed a group of male munchkins with female munchkins she saw the following result: Offspring phenotype Munchkin Normal Number 21 9 What do you think is going on? with homozygous recessive individuals not surviving till birth. dominant individuals not surviving till birth.
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The Munchkin gene is autosomal dominant with homozygous dominant individuals not surviving till birth. MM Mm Mm mm M M m m
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5. Is it possible to produce a ‘true- breeding’ strain of ‘Munchkin’ cats? MM Mm Mm mm M M m m A. Yes B. No
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1. What do you think? Is recapitulation theory true? A. Yes, it’s totally correct: in their development embryos play out their species’ evolution. B. Yes, it’s a bit correct in that development is somewhat similar between related organisms – reflecting evolutionary relationships. C. No, it’s been pretty much discredited as an idea D. No, it has no value scientifically
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2. In the developmental gene hierarchy, which acts first?
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3. Which group of genes has been highly conserved across different lineages of animals and controls segment identity?A. Hox genesB. Maternal effect genesC. Pair-rule genesD. Gap genes
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4. Among the segmentation genes, which type acts last? A. Gap genesB. Pair-rule genesC. Segment polarityD. Maternal effect genes
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1. As a fly researcher you notice defects in very early development that can be easily seen by the time the mutants reach the larval stage. In one class of mutants larvae are missing segments at the anterior end. In another class of mutants larvae are missing segments at the posterior end. The mutant larvae are grossly abnormal and do not survive .
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