2004 two to 10 participants or research subjects are suf fi cient to reach

2004 two to 10 participants or research subjects are

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(2004), two to 10 participants or research subjects are suf fi cient to reach saturation. This study process itself revealed that the director of the disability support of fi ce is a gatekeeper for participant database access and selection for each institution. The Disability Services director helped select six students who were recent gradu- ates and two who were seniors. The participant criteria that we presented to the director are a college student with a physical disability, a senior, or a recent gradu- ate. Participating graduates were limited to those who had graduated within the three years preceding the interview period. This provides a time frame similar to that of seniors. The in-person interviews were held twice following Moustakas (1994) method- ological recommendation. They took about 80 minutes for the fi rst round and about 30 minutes for the second round. For the convenience of two participants who were blind, telephone interviews were substituted for the follow-up in-person interviews. Data were digitally recorded for all participants, and interview data were handled by traditional transcription and analysis methods recommended by phenomenologi- cal researchers. Data collection consisted of semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Initial interviews were scheduled during August 2007, and all interviews were com- pleted, transcribed, and coded by the end of 2007. All participants were provided with pseudonyms to maintain con fi dentiality. Analysis procedures Phenomenological approaches allowed us to be re ective and interpretive of the true essence of participants experiences with disability and employment. For the phenomenological data analysis, this study mainly followed the systematic analysis process suggested by Clark Moustakas (1994). The procedures included epoche (bracketing), intensive interviews of students with disabilities, identifying signi fi cant statements, horizontalization, clustering horizons into themes (coding themes), syn- thesizing themes into a description of individual experiences, and constructing a composite description of the meaning. The most important phenomenological analysis starts with the epoche process (a process of setting aside predilections, prejudices, and predispositions for deriving new knowledge), suspending the common knowledge or taken-for-granted assump- tions of researchers to acquire true phenomena. Another complex data analysis pro- cedure suggested by Moustakas (1994) and Moerer-Urdahl and Creswell (2004) is constructing three types of narratives in uenced by transcendental phenomenology. We applied three types of phenomenological narrative methods for transcribing inter- views: textual ( what ), structural ( how ), and textural structural (composite). This three-step process led us to much re ection and allowed us to better assemble and understand the meaning of each participant s voice and experiences. For the phenom- enological data reduction process, we used the method of horizontalization the pro- cess of producing a list of expressions relevant to the phenomena of interest.
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