Recall the two monomers of Glucose Relate the structure of Glycogen, Starch and Cellulose to their function in animal and plant cells 3.1.2 Carbohydrates. Glucose has two isomers, α- glucose and β-glucose. Polysaccharides are formed by the condensation of many glucose units. • Glycogen and starch are formed by the condensation of α-glucose. • Cellulose is formed by the condensation of β-glucose. The basic structure and functions of glycogen, starch and cellulose. The relationship of structure to function of these substances in animal cells and plant cells. PS1.1 MS0.1 MS1.1 MS1.11 MS 2.2 MS2.3 MS3.3 MS3.5 PS3.1 PS3.2 PS3.3 1.3 © HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2015 6
11 Carbohydrates Students should perform the tests for reducing and non-reducing sugars, be able to describe the method and results for the Biochemical tests and use them to correctly identify unknown substances. They can complete Assignment 3: Identifying Carbohydrates from Biochemical Tests. Describe the Biochemical tests used to identify carbohydrates. 3.1.2 Carbohydrates Biochemical tests using Benedict's solution for reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars and iodine/potassium iodide for starch. PS1.2 PS4.1 AT f Students could use, and interpret the results of, qualitative tests for reducing sugars, non- reducing sugars and starch. 1.3 © HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2015 7
One hour lessons Learning Outcomes Specification Content Skills Covered Student Book Section Required Practicals CHAPTER 2 – Lipids and Proteins (9 hours) 1 Lipids - Triglycerides Students should recall that lipids are biological molecules containing C, H and O. They should recognise Triglycerides as a group of lipid formed by condensation reactions between glycerol and fatty acid chains and be able to draw and label this reaction and the formation of ester bonds. They may be able to synthesise diagrams of the hydrolysis reactions which break these molecules down. Students should recognise saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and describe the presence or absence of double bonds within them. Molymods can be used to make glycerol, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and triglycerides. Describe the structure of a triglyceride Describe, draw and label the condensation reactions required to form these molecules Describe how R-group of a fatty acid maybe saturated or unsaturated 3.3.1 Lipids Triglycerides and phospholipids are two groups of lipid. Triglycerides are formed by the condensation of one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid. A condensation reaction between glycerol and a fatty acid (RCOOH) forms an ester bond. The R-group of a fatty acid may be saturated or unsaturated. Students should be able to: • recognise, from diagrams, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 2.1 2 Lipids – Phospholipids Students should recognise that in a Phospholipid one of the fatty acid chains in a triglyceride is substituted for a phosphate group and be able to draw and label the molecule. They should be able to draw and label this reaction and the formation of ester bonds. They
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