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DSST World Religion Notes

Son of heaven emperors title sacred duty was to

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Son of Heaven – emperor’s title - sacred duty was to perform the annual cult of Heaven sacrifices - lack of separation between political and religious powers is demonstrated by the emperors title Hsun-tzu is known as the second greatest interpreter of Confucius behind Mencius, teachings received greater acceptance than those of Mencius Hsun-tzu – teaches that humans nature is inherently Evil (unlike the teaching of Confucius and Mencius), believed goodness only came through training Mohism – ancient school of philosophy with religious overtones - noted for universal love and pacifism (Mo- tzu) Han Dynasty – Used Confucian orthodoxy to legitimize its Heavenly mandate to rule Mo Tzu probably lived between 470 and 391 BCE. After a short period as a civil servant he became a traveling philosopher like Confucius, counseling feudal lords on government and personal conduct. Unlike Confucius, he laid stress on the need for universal love, rather than love restricted to the family. Tung Chung-shu – is reputed to have used philosophical arguments to persuade the rulers to govern benevolently according to Confucian principles Horizontal Trinity of Heaven – Earth, humans and Heaven the triad of Confucian thought, it’s the emperor’s role as Son of Heaven to connect them Civil Service Examinations –in 136 BC the Han dynasty made Confucianism the basis to strengthening its position in government, all government workers were well versed in the doctrine Neo-Confucians –commentators active during the Sung dynasty Neo-Confucians – replaced the Five Classics with a collection know as Four Books, included more metaphysical and spiritual orientation in the Confucian canon, Four Books - smaller intended to promote the spiritual and religious side of Confucianism Chu Hsi – most influential Neo-Confucian, in 1313 his commentaries on the Four Books was added to the Civil Service Exams T’ai-chi – translates to “Great Ultimate” described as a macrocosm to the human body Wang Yang-ming – known for his criticism of Chu His and the orthodoxy built upon Chu His’s philosophy, he did not see the “Great Ultimate” present in both the world and self, rather “Absolute was found in each individual subjective mind 1911 – Republic of China – Confucianism ceased to exist as the official state orthodoxy Confucianism is associated with education and Civil Service Exams in China and Korea Japan Confucianism was more hierarchal and modified to support bushido, the ethical code of samurai Confucianism in Chinese society, women were allowed less freedom and were subordinate in the family system Confucianism Feudalism - describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals , and fiefs . Mencius - humans inherently good; believed that the only reason all people are not virtuous is because of their
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Son of Heaven emperors title sacred duty was to perform the...

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