o X is a good reason to believe Y Analyzing the Structure of Arguments Intro

O x is a good reason to believe y analyzing the

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o X is a good reason to believe Y. Analyzing the Structure of Arguments
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Intro into Ethics Professor: Jacob Affolter When you look at a part of an argument, it is helpful to ask the following questions: 1) Is it the conclusion? 2) If it is not the conclusion, is it evidence? a. If it is evidence, what is it evidence for? 3) If it is not the conclusion, is it warrant for something? a. If it is warranted, what point is it supporting? b. What is that point supposed to prove? 9/11: Act Consequentialism: General Normative Theories Theories that attempt to give a basic principle that: Determines what actions are right, wrong, or indifferent in all circumstances Identifies the features that make particular actions right, wrong, or indifferent Background Once we decide that morality is relative, subjective, or objective, then we have to figure out what exactly is moral or immoral Cultural relativists have to figure out what their cultural morality demands Ethical subjectivists have to figure out what their personal moralities demand Moral objectivists have to figure out what the objection source of morality demands Consequentialism A family of theories Every consequentialist theory says the following: The only thing that makes an action right or wrong is it consequences, not any feature of the action itself The right action is always the one that produces the best consequences A Method Consequentialists suggest a five step process for figuring out whether an action is optimific Identify what consequences are intrinsically good Identify what consequences are intrinsically bad Figure out all of your options Determine the value of the results of each option Figure out what produces the best balance Vocabulary Things that are good can be good in one of three ways: Intrinsically goodL Food for its own sake
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Intro into Ethics Professor: Jacob Affolter Instrumentally good: good because of further good results Both: good for its own sake and brings further good things Types of consequentialist Consequentialists can be divided into categories based on their answers to three questions: What consequences are intrinsically good What consequences are intrinsically bad What criteria do we use for figuring out the brest balance of good and bad consequences. Act utilitarianism Act utilitarianism answer these questions by saying: Well being, and only well being, is intrinsically good Faring badly, and only fairing badly, in intrinsically bad We should aim for the best “net balance” This means that we should add up the good and subtract out the bad Basic principle In every situation, a person should take the action that would produce the best net balance of good over bad for everyone affected, in the long run Hedonist act utilitarianism Argues that pleasure is the only good, and pain is the only bad
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  • Fall '19
  • Jacob Affolter

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