➢oX is a good reason to believe Y.➢Analyzing the Structure of Arguments
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Intro into EthicsProfessor: Jacob Affolter➢When you look at a part of an argument, it is helpful to ask the following questions:➢1)Is it the conclusion?➢2)If it is not the conclusion, is it evidence?➢a.If it is evidence, what is it evidence for?➢3)If it is not the conclusion, is it warrant for something?➢a.If it is warranted, what point is it supporting?➢b.What is that point supposed to prove?9/11:Act Consequentialism:➢General Normative Theories○Theories that attempt to give a basic principle that:■Determines what actions are right, wrong, or indifferent in all circumstances■Identifies the features that make particular actions right, wrong, or indifferent➢Background○Once we decide that morality is relative, subjective, or objective, then we have to figure out what exactly is moral or immoral■Cultural relativists have to figure out what their cultural morality demands■Ethical subjectivists have to figure out what their personal moralities demand■Moral objectivists have to figure out what the objection source of moralitydemands➢Consequentialism○A family of theories○Every consequentialist theory says the following:■The only thing that makes an action right or wrong is it consequences, not any feature of the action itself■The right action is always the one that produces the best consequences➢A Method○Consequentialists suggest a five step process for figuring out whether an action is optimific■Identify what consequences are intrinsically good■Identify what consequences are intrinsically bad■Figure out all of your options■Determine the value of the results of each option■Figure out what produces the best balance➢Vocabulary○Things that are good can be good in one of three ways:■Intrinsically goodL Food for its own sake
Intro into EthicsProfessor: Jacob Affolter■Instrumentally good: good because of further good results■Both: good for its own sake and brings further good things➢Types of consequentialist○Consequentialists can be divided into categories based on their answers to three questions: ■What consequences are intrinsically good■What consequences are intrinsically bad■What criteria do we use for figuring out the brest balance of good and bad consequences. ➢Act utilitarianism○Act utilitarianism answer these questions by saying:■Well being, and only well being, is intrinsically good■Faring badly, and only fairing badly, in intrinsically bad■We should aim for the best “net balance”●This means that we should add up the good and subtract out the bad○Basic principle■In every situation, a person should take the action that would produce the best net balance of good over bad for everyone affected, in the long run➢Hedonist act utilitarianism○Argues that pleasure is the only good, and pain is the only bad○
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