Chinese Politics Reading Notes.docx

Peer review and criticism is rare in japan where such

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Peer review and criticism is rare in Japan, where such things are considered rude and not widespread acceptance of the rule in clarifying and advancing thought through scientific matters Western rhetoric, which provides the underlying structure for everything from scientific reports to policy position papers usually has some variation of the following form: Background; Problem; Hypothesis or proposed proposition; Means of testing; Evidence; Arguments as to what the evidence means; Refutation of possible counterarguments; and Conclusion and recommendations. Linear rhetoric is not common in the East Westerners believe once a bargain is struck it shouldn’t be modified Easterners, agreements are often regarded as tentatively agreed upon guides for the future Japanese take a holistic view of the business relationship, including its context over time West: Individuals are separate units and they enter into a social contract with one another and with the state that entails certain rights, freedoms, and obligations. East Asians: view societies as organisms. For the Chinese any conception of rights is based on a part-whole as opposed to a one- many conception of society. To the extent that the individual has rights they constitute the individual’s share of the total rights. Right/Wrong in the West versus Both/And in the East Eastern religions are characterized by tolerance and interpenetration of religious ideas. Religious wars in the East have been relatively rare, whereas they have been endemic in the West for hundreds of years: Monotheism often carries with it the insistence that everyone accede to the same notion of God. Cycles and recurrences are an integral part of many Eastern religions but are less common in the West. Rebirth is part of some Eastern religions but rare in Eastern ones. Sin is understood to be a chronic condition and can be atoned for in many Eastern religions Catholicism also has this to a degree Hard to atone for in Protestant tradition Japanese managers start at the bottom of their companies and are rotated among divisions frequently so as to maintain an overview of their companies’ activities David Hume- There can be no question of a deductive solution to the problem
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Nelson Goodman- the solution to the riddle of induction is to seek reflective equilibrium between rules for inductive inferences and the specific inferences that we in fact make We abandon any deductive rule that required us to sanction inferences that we found unacceptable, and would reject any conclusión that was prohibited by a rule we were unwilling to give up If we don’t agree about whether an inference is justified or not we can’t use the principle as a guide to correct thinking just an expression of personal preference The two western vices of separate of form and content and the insistence on logical approaches often operate together to produce a lot of academic nonsense.
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