70 Figure 2 30 Molecular Biology of the Cell Garland Science 2008

70 figure 2 30 molecular biology of the cell garland

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Figure 2-30 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Macromolecules Macromolecules are greatly responsible for the complex shape, function, regulation of cells – why? Number 71
Figure 2-16 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) The shape, size and physical and chemical properties of macromolecules allow them to have specific functions 72
Sugars and Polysaccharides Figure 2-19 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Repeat to make polysaccharides: Energy storage Structural functions (cell walls) Cell signaling (cell-cell binding) Blood groups 73
Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Figure 2-26 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Figure 2-28 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) •DNA is the genetic code •RNA intermediates of information: o Transcription and translation o Gene regulation o enzyme RNAs: ribozymes Polymerize by Condensation reaction Monomer = nucleotide 74 deoxyribose 5 types of bases
Figure 2-23 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Figure 2-24 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Amino acids and proteins Monomers = twenty different amino acids Polymerize by Condensation reaction •Proteins are involved in almost everything: o structure o energy o information transfer o catalysis 75
Macromolecules are responsible for the complexity of life WHY? Covalent linkage and rearrangement of a few building blocks can create an incredible diversity. This happens by changing: 1. Polymer Length 76
2. Linear sequence of Monomer Types Macromolecules are responsible for the complexity of lifeWHY? 1) Hemoglobin 2) 2) CFTR – Cystic Fibrosis
Macromolecules are responsible for the complexity of life WHY? 3. Properties of the Covalent bonds between monomers , i.e., where on a molecule does one attach the next building block – important for polysaccharides Figure 2-20 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) 78 B1 > 4 link gives rise to cellulose (1000’s of monomers) A1>4 link gives rise to glycogen
Macromolecules are responsible for the complexity of life 4. Conformation of a molecule, i.e., 3-D shape of a molecule DNA Protein Hyaluron, a polysaccharide 79 Stabilized mostly by non-covalent interactions: hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions
Lipids and phospholipids Lipids are not macromolecules •Different types of lipids: phospholipids, cholesterol, etc •Energy storage •Signalling (water-insoluble vitamins, steroid hormones) •Forms membrane bilayer Figure 2-22 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) 80 Example : plasma membrane
Proteins are experts at creating unimaginable structural diversity from only 20 building blocks (amino acids) 81 This is accomplished by a hierarchical structural order: Primary structure

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