21 although they faced overwhelming odds the citizens

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21
--Although they faced overwhelming odds, the citizens of Madrid prepared for the attack. --Messages broadcast on the radio and banners emblazoned with slogans such as “They shall not pass!” (¡No Pasarán!) encouraged the defenders. --The arrival of Soviet arms on November 8 and the aid of the International Brigades further boosted the morale of Madrid’s Republicans. --they also were decisive in holding back the assault--the International Brigades were conceived, organized and manned mostly by Communists--of the 30,000 or so that reached Spain, most came from working-class backgrounds and were either party members of sympathizers --The fighting continued until mid-January 1937, when Franco realized the Nationalists could not take Madrid and abandoned the offensive. --The defense of Madrid became one of the most legendary strugglesof the civil war.--and after the “victory” of November 1936, Madrid took on the appearance of a Communist city, with read flags and pictures of Lenineverywhere--one event in the Spring of 1937 will, however, change the outcome of the war and its atrocities were immortalized by one of Picasso’s most famous and political paintings, GuernicaGuernica and the North --Frustrated with the progress of the war in and around Madrid, Franco turned his attention to the northern front. 22
--During the spring of 1937 the Nationalists launched a massive offensive in the Basque Country and Spain’s other northern provinces. --During this campaign one of the most controversial episodes of the war occurred. --this episode was depicted and immortalized by Picasso in his painting Guernica, the town were this incident occurred [PP of Picasso’s painting]--this painting is now in the Centro de Arte Reina Sofia/ Museum of Contemporary Art and is one of the most emblematic paintings of the 20thcentury--the painting in and of itself is a masterful work but the history behindis also very important--in April of 1937, a group of German planes staged an attack and bombed a defenseless Basque village called Guernica during three hours dropping explosives and incendiary bombs--Guernica was a traditional Basque village of much symbolic importance for the region--this maneuver was of great benefit to the Germans who were eager to test new equipment and military strategy in the field--indeed, the Germans whose numbers were fewer than the Italians, provided technical advisors and the best air unit in Spain Symbols and Meanings of Picasso’s “Guernica” Links to Guernica(painting)--Guernica as a town symbolized the traditional home of Basque freedom, historically guaranteed by Spanish kings centuries earlier23
--A series of photographs documenting the attack appeared in a newspaper in Paris, where Picasso was living, and he immediately set to work.--Guernica was Picasso's response to, and condemnation of, that event.

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