using the voice-frequency band over telephone lines between telephone equipment and other communications devices and switching centers. DTMF was first developed in the Bell System in the United States, and became known under the trademark Touch-Tone for use in push-button telephones supplied to telephone customers, starting in 1963. DTMF is standardized as ITU- T Recommendation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4. Fig : DTMF Equipment The Touch-Tone system using a telephone keypad gradually replaced the use of rotary dial and has become the industry standard for landline and mobile service. Other multi-frequency systems are used for internal signaling within the telephone network. Prior to the development of DTMF, telephone numbers were dialed by users with a loop- disconnect (LD) signaling, more commonly known as pulse dialing (dial pulse, DP) in the U.S. It functions by interrupting the current in the local loop between the telephone exchange and the calling party's telephone at a precise rate with a switch in the telephone that is operated by the rotary dial as it spins back to its rest position after having been rotated to each desired number. The exchange equipment responds to the dial pulses either directly by operating relays, or by storing the number in a digit register recording the dialed number. The physical distance for which this type of dialing was possible was restricted by electrical distortions and was only possible on direct metallic links between end points of a line. Placing calls over longer distances required either operator assistance or provision of special subscriber trunk dialing equipment. Operators used an earlier type of multi-frequency signaling. Multi-frequency signaling (MF) is a group of signaling methods that use a mixture of two pure tone (pure sine wave) sounds. Various MF signaling protocols were devised by the Bell System and CCITT. The earliest of these were for in-band signaling between switching centers, where long-distance telephone operators used a 16-digit keypad to input the next portion of the destination telephone number in order to contact the next downstream long-distance telephone operator. This semi-automated signaling and switching proved successful in both speed and cost effectiveness. Based on this prior success with using MF by specialists to establish long-
Page | 8 distance telephone calls, dual-tone multi-frequency signaling was developed for end-user signaling without the assistance of operators. The DTMF system uses a set of eight audio frequencies transmitted in pairs to represent 16 signals, represented by the ten digits, the letters A to D, and the symbols # and *. As the signals are audible tones in the voice frequency range, they can be transmitted through electrical repeaters and amplifiers, and over radio and microwave links, thus eliminating the need for intermediate operators on long-distance circuits.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 32 pages?
- Fall '16
- Mr. Sandeep Sharma
- Telephone exchange, Indian Railways, Railway, Railway Board, Control Office