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Lecture 19 - Nervous System I

Dynein and kinesin are transported along the axon

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Dynein and kinesin are transported along the axon, holding NT and other proteins ATP hydrolysis is essential for movement Dynein recycles membrane vesicles Anterograde is toward the synapse Kinesin Retrograde is away from the synapse, to the cell body Dynein Glial Cells Astrocytes help regulate the composition of ECF by soaking up K ions and extra NT  around the synapses 
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Stimulation the formation of tight junctions in CNS capillary endothelium (BBB) There is no water channels in the endothelium and the capillaries This is a hugely protective mechanism for the brain Active transport for nearly everything in and out of the brain Also provide glucose to and remove ammonia from neurons Release glucose, short diffusion Ammonia is an end product of protein metabolism and a toxin Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells provide myelin sheath covering of some axons Microglia are specialized macrophage like-cells that perform immune functions in the  CNS Ependymal cells line the fluid filled cavities of the CNS and regulate the production and  flow of cerebrospinal fluid Ciliated ECF flows through central canal through ciliated action Potocytes Foot processes that transfer nutrients and waste products Signaling in the NS APs are electrical Chemical or electrical synapses Usually chemical using NT Electrical contain gap junctions that allow current to flow from cell to cell and propagate  AP rapidly Basic Electricity Predominate ECF solutes are Na and Ca
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ICF has high concnetrations of K ions and ionized versions of non diffusible molecules Phosphate compounds and proteins with negative side chains This maintains electroneutrality Electrical phenomena that are related to distribution of charges occur at the CELL  MEMBRANE Al these processes occur at the membrane Cell integration Cell to cell communication If opporite charges are separated, they gain the potentioal to do work if they are allowed  to come together
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