The former are based on lifecycle thinking and span

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Coalition). The former are based on lifecycle thinking and span the apparel lifecycle (material, manufacturing, packaging transportation, use, and end-of-life), based on the Eco Index and Nike s Apparel Environmental Design Tool. The latter are based on the worker lifecycle, using some initiatives in such connection (e.g., the Global Social Compliance Program, SAI Social Fingerprint-a program of raitings, training and tool designed to help companies to help measure and improve social perfor- mance, FLA Sustainable Compliance Initiative which goal is to develop sustainable compliance tools and training materials for all code requirements to be use in the internal compliance programs of participating companies.). This index has three application levels; the objectives and tools are described in Table 1 . The three levels were described by Chouinard et al. ( 2011 ), who stated: To appreciate how these three views mitigate impacts, imagine the CEO of the casual apparel maker in a meeting with the head merchant of the company s largest customer. The merchant declines to place an order, informing the CEO that the brand s overall VCI -Value Chain Index- rating is too low to meet the retailer s standards. Having lost the sale, the CEO tells the VP of Design that all products for next season must have cumulative better 3 The principles stem from four key agreements: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The International Labour Organization s Declaration on Fundamentals Principles and Rights at Work, The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, The United Nations Convention Against Corruption. 62 M.Á. Gardetti
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VCI ratings. The VP conveys this directive to his team. A designer on the team starts work on a cotton blouse. She begins by specifying traditionally grown cotton, but her design software tells her that the VCI rating for that material falls short of the new sustainability goals. She then selects a vendor offering organically grown cotton, but the score is still low because she has sourced the cotton in western China, where irrigation is drawing down an aquifer faster than rainfall can replenish it. Scanning the VCI tables, she lights upon another option, a vendor in southern India buying from farms that are watered by region s rainfall. She completes her selection of materials and reaches the sustainability score she and her bosses have targeted. 3.2.1 The HIGG Index Tools Because the UNGC Code of Conduct refers to the textile and fashion sectors, the following analysis describes the Higg Index 2.0 only as it relates to these sectors (see Table 2 ). Table 1 Higg Index 2.0 levels, objectives, and application tools Level Objective Tools Brand To assess product-speci fi c environmental/social and labor performance at this level Environment (apparel) Environment (footwear) Social/Labor (apparel/foot- wear) Beta Facility To assess speci fi c environmental and social and labor performance materials, packaging, manufac- turing suppliers facilities Environment (apparel/ footwear) Social/Labor (apparel/foot- wear) Beta Product
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