Coalition). The former are based on lifecycle thinking and span the apparel lifecycle(material, manufacturing, packaging transportation, use, and end-of-life), based onthe Eco Index and Nike’s Apparel Environmental Design Tool. The latter are basedon the worker lifecycle, using some initiatives in such connection (e.g., the GlobalSocial Compliance Program, SAI Social Fingerprint-a program of raitings, trainingand tool designed to help companies to help measure and improve social perfor-mance, FLA Sustainable Compliance Initiative which goal is to develop sustainablecompliance tools and training materials for all code requirements to be use in theinternal compliance programs of participating companies.).This index has three application levels; the objectives and tools are described inTable1.The three levels were described by Chouinard et al. (2011), who stated:To appreciate how these three views mitigate impacts, imagine the CEO of the casualapparel maker in a meeting with the head merchant of the company’s largest customer. Themerchant declines to place an order, informing the CEO that the brand’s overall VCI -ValueChain Index- rating is too low to meet the retailer’s standards. Having lost the sale, theCEO tells the VP of Design that all products for next season must have cumulative better3The principles stem from four key agreements: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights,The International Labour Organization’s Declaration on Fundamentals Principles and Rights atWork, The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, The United Nations ConventionAgainst Corruption.62M.Á. Gardetti
VCI ratings. The VP conveys this directive to his team. A designer on the team starts workon a cotton blouse. She begins by specifying traditionally grown cotton, but her designsoftware tells her that the VCI rating for that material falls short of the new sustainabilitygoals. She then selects a vendor offering organically grown cotton, but the score is still lowbecause she has sourced the cotton in western China, where irrigation is drawing down anaquifer faster than rainfall can replenish it. Scanning the VCI tables, she lights upon anotheroption, a vendor in southern India buying from farms that are watered by region’s rainfall.She completes her selection of materials and reaches the sustainability score she and herbosses have targeted.3.2.1 The HIGG Index ToolsBecause the UNGC Code of Conduct refers to the textile and fashion sectors, thefollowing analysis describes the Higg Index 2.0 only as it relates to these sectors(see Table2).Table 1Higg Index 2.0 levels, objectives, and application toolsLevelObjectiveToolsBrandTo assess product-specific environmental/socialand labor performance at this levelEnvironment (apparel)Environment (footwear)Social/Labor (apparel/foot-wear)—BetaFacilityTo assess specific environmental and social andlabor performance materials, packaging, manufac-turing suppliers facilitiesEnvironment (apparel/footwear)Social/Labor (apparel/foot-wear)—BetaProduct
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