• people that take these artificial sweeteners actually do compensate from other sources. Sweeteners are most commonly used in soft drinks. The second most common use of high intensity sweeteners is for oral hygiene products (toothpaste, mouthwash). Topic 7: Adverse Food Reactions The learning goals of this topic are to: 1.Explain the difference between natural and unintentional toxins and how they enter the food supply. 2.Discuss the characteristics of health issues related to adverse food reactions. 3. Compare different types of microbes, how they enter the food supply and methods for preventing contamination. 4.Describe chemical reactions associated with foods and different methods of preparation and cooking.
Nine Loevenbruck LESSON 1: ADVERSE FOOD REACTIONS I VIDEO 1:E coli O157:H7is a bacterium that can be lethal. •when the animals are butchered, sometimes the intestines (where the bacteria lives without harming them) get ruptured, and you get contamination of the meat. •Not a problem if you cook the meat, but in steak tartare yes •Spinach or cantaloupe can be contaminated by this bacteria, if they are fertilized with manure that is contaminated with this bacteria •If apple juice is unpasteurized, it can harbor E. coli. •bottled garlic that is stored under oil can produce botulin, one of the most toxic substances that exists •bottled carrot juice can give rise to botulinNot all modsare dangerous, but some are Perceived Risks vs Real Risks 1820 in New Jersey, tomatoes weren’t eaten in America but were in Europe. The tomatois in the same botanical family as the belladonna plant. •By association, the tomato was thought to be toxic. Robert Gibbon Johnson: ad in a local newspaper inviting people to watch him eat a tomato. Tomatoes contain a variety of antioxidants including a chemical called lycopene. •Lycopenehas been associated with reducing the risk of macular degeneration and generally keeping people healthy. Many beneficial in the prevention of prostate cancer In 1850, Arthur Hasall, an English physician, picked up a fork after he had mashed his gooseberries and found that it was coated with copper. •iron can react with copper compounds, and you get an oxidation reduction reaction and the ionic copper is reduced to metallic copper. In early 1900’s, chalk was added to watered down milk; arsenic and boric acid sprinkled on meat and fish to retard spoilage (used as preservative) and lard was added to “extend” butter. Copper salts were added to make vegetables more green. Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate) was added to bread instead of flour bc cheaper. Tea would be extended by adding indigo. Today, our food supply in fact is quite closely regulated. Unintentional toxins; naturally occurring toxins; problems with body chemistry; idiosyncratic reactions; contamination with microbes VIDEO 2:Unintentional toxins There are pesticide residues on our food. •People overestimate rare risks.
Nine Loevenbruck People underestimate common risks. Pesticidescan be a real problem, not when they are present in trace amounts on the food, but when they are somehow improperly used. Aldicarbis a pesticide referred to as a cholinesterase inhibitor. It inhibits a very important enzyme that is present in insects but is present in humans as well. •aldicarb is used, for example, on cucumbers. •One of the symptom of aldicarb poisoning is “wriggling under skin like worms” •aldicarb used instead of pepper on cabbage salad: cramps, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, sweating, muscle twitching, blurred vision Mercuryin fish, for example in large tuna, comes from burning coal that reacts with bacteria in the water and converts to methyl mercury and that is found in the fish. •Pregnant women are advised to stay away from predator fish that concentrate mercury Naturally Occurring ToxinsConiineis found in hemlock. •The ancient Greeks used to carry out executions by asking the victim to drink the juice of the hemlock plant. Whenever potatoes are trying to sprout (they get a green coloring: chlorophyll), it produces solanine(natural insecticide) which is water soluble and can cause gastric problems. The natural world is full of poisonousmushrooms. •death cap mushroom: one of the most poisonous mushrooms. Death comes from ingestion of amanitin (a toxin that will kill humans but not rabbits). •Amanita muscariacontains a variety of toxins including muscacrine (can be lethal) Moldscan produce a large variety of myotoxins (not all dangerous materials). •Penicillium notatum mold produces penicillin. Grainsare the most susceptible to producing molds that are toxic. •mycotoxins can be found on cereals of all kinds. One particular family of toxins is called the aflatoxin(ochratoxin, patulin, fusarium…) •probably the most carcinogenic substances known By using genetically modifiedcorn, we can cut down on the presence of molds. •By inducing the corn to produce an insecticide, insects are discouraged from eating the corn. Mould grows where insects have bitten into the corn.
- Spring '11
- Silent Spring, World Health Organization, Pesticide, synthetic pesticides