A voiced consonant may be replaced by a voiceless one under the influence of the adjacent voiceless consonant.Thus in the verb used [ju:zd] the consonants [z] and [d] have been replaced by the voiceless consonants [s] and [t] before to - namely in used to [ju:st tu] mean-ing ‘accustomed to’. This pronunciation is now common even when no tofol-lows, e.g.Used they to live here ?[ ju:st ðe tˈɪυ l v h ]ˈ ɪˏ ɪ əNo, they usedn’t [ n| ðe ju:snt]ˋ ɜƲɪ ˋWhen the vowel [ ] in the verb formɪis[ z] is omitted in rapid colloquial speech ɪand [z] finds itself preceded by a voiceless consonant other than [s], [∫], or [t∫], itis replaced by [s] under the influence of the preceding voiceless consonant. Cf.What is this ?[ w t z ð s]ˈɒ ɪˋ ɪWhat’s this ?[wts ð s]ɒɪˋThe English sonorants [m], [n], [l], [r], [j], [w] are partly devoiced when they are preceded by the voiceless consonants [s], [p], [t], [k], e.g. small, please, slow, try, pew, quick, twenty, etc.49. When does assimilation affect the lip position? Give examplesAssimilation affecting the lip position takes place when labialized subsidiary variantsof the phonemes [k], [g], [t], [s], etc. are used under the influence of the following bilabial sonorant [w], e.g.quick[kwɪk],twenty[twentɪ]swim[swɪm].50. When does assimilation affect the position of the soft palate? Give examples.Assimilation affecting the position of the soft palate takes place when nasal consonants influence oral ones. (Seelet me, give meexamples above.) Also insandwich[ˈsænwɪʤ],kindness[ˈkaɪnnɪs],grandmother['grænmʌðə] the consonant [d] influenced by the preceding [n] changed to the consonant [n] and then disappeared.
Phonation, Vowel, International Phonetic Alphabet, Stop consonant, Consonant
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