L02 - NATS1610-fw1718 - Structure and Organization.pdf

Cellular level n cells the basic structural

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2. Cellular Level n Cells – the basic STRUCTURAL & FUNCTIONAL UNITS of an organism § SMALLEST LIVING UNITS in the human body - i.e., muscle cells, cardiac cells, nerve cells, etc n Organelles – structural components with specific functions WITHIN cells § i.e., mitochondria (energy production), ribosomes (protein synthesis), etc What Are The Basic Cell Functions (functions of LIFE!) n OBTAIN nutrients & oxygen from surrounding environment n PERFORM chemical reactions that provide energy for the cell (i.e., cellular respiration) n ELIMINATE carbon dioxide & other wastes to surrounding environment n SYNTHESIZE needed cellular components n CONTROL EXCHANGE of materials between cell & its surrounding environment n SENSE & RESPOND to changes in surrounding environment n REPRODUCE – exceptions – nerve & muscle cells lose their ability to reproduce during their early development 20
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21 3. Tissue Level n Groups of cells & the material surrounding them n Work together to perform a particular function n 4 types - epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous 4. Organ Level n 2 or more kinds of tissues joined together to form body structures n have specific functions 5. Organ System Level n Consists of related organs that have a common function n Some organs can be part of more than one system § i.e., pancreas – digestive & endocrine 6. Organismal Level n Highest level of organization n All systems of body combine to make up an organism, that is, one human being
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22 In SUMMARY: The structural organization of the human body Fig. 1.1 - from Tortora and Grabowski, Introduction to the Human Body , 6ed, Wiley
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Next Topic: Survival and Homeostasis n Text: Human Biology, Starr and McMillan, 11/ed n Chapter 2, pages 28-29 n Chapter 4, pages 76-77, 80-83 n Chapter 8, pages 150-151 n Chapter 15, page 298-299 23
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