that could serve as the minimum requirements that must be met before biofuel

That could serve as the minimum requirements that

This preview shows page 2 - 4 out of 19 pages.

that could serve as the minimum requirements that must be met before biofuel projects are approved. They are: project eligibility screen, human rights impacts assessment, stakeholder identification and consultation, information disclosure system and project review mechanism. This threshold emphasizes the importance of an integrated assessment to identify the human rights, social and environmental impacts and risks of biofuel projects; and the importance of effective community engagement and consultation with local communities. 4 National Non-Food Crops Centre, "GHG Benefits from Use of Vegetable Oils for Electricity, Heat, Transport and Industrial Purposes, available at < - use-of-vegetable-oils-for-electricity-heat-transport-and-industrial-purposes-nnfcc-10-016> (accessed 23 September 2012). 5 D. Carrington, ‘Biofuels boom in Africa as British firms lead rush on land for plantations’, available at <- firms> (accessed 12 September 2012). 6 See A. Olaniyi, ‘Biofuels Opportunities and Development of Renewable Energies Markets in Africa: A Case of Nigeria’, available at <; (assessed 23 October 2012).
Image of page 2
226 Olarinde and Olawuyi: Setting Sustainable Standards for Biofuel Production 2.0 Potentials of Biofuel Production in Nigeria In order to set the appropriate context for our discussions of the potentials and paradoxes of biofuel production in Nigeria, it is pertinent to briefly explore and understand Nigeria’s energy profile. Nigeria’s Energy Profile The Nigerian economy is arguably a monoculture: about 80% of government income, 90-95% of export earnings and more than 90% of foreign exchange revenues evolve from the conventional oil sector. Over the last fifty years, Nigeria has earned approximately $800 Billion as oil revenue, a figure that dwarfs earnings from other sectors. While this is by itself good, Nigeria continues to miss the social, economic and sustainability prospects of diversifying energy sources, and the prospects of attracting investments in alternative energy sectors. Reeling from the impacts of the global financial meltdown, a number of countries have detected the sense in pursuing alternative energy sources to widen the national financial income base, avoid the higher cost of conventional oil production, combat energy insecurity, reduce dependence on fossil fuel and to encourage investments in renewable energy sources (RES). Despite the international awareness on the impetus for energy diversification, Nigeria remains over-dependent on crude oil as a source of energy and revenue to the detriment of other sectors, particularly agriculture. In 2005, the Federal Government of Nigeria issued a directive on an Automotive Biomass Programme for Nigeria. This directive mandated the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) to create an environment for the take-off of a domestic fuel ethanol
Image of page 3
Image of page 4

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 19 pages?

  • Summer '20
  • Dr joseph
  • Peak oil

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes