Hydrogen bond is a weak bond that forms between the hydrogen of one watermolecule to the oxygen of another Allows for water to be a versatile molecule with many unique properties which facilitate life What determines a molecule’s shape? How does this affect molecular function?Molecule shape - determined by position of valence orbitals Shape is critical to function A molecule interacts with other molecules on the basis of shape Chemistry of WaterWhat is water?Water is the biological medium on earth What relationship does the abundance of water have with life on Earth?Abundance of water on earth allows for it to be habitable Van der waals are only with nonpolar What type of molecule is a water molecule?polarWhy are water molecules attracted to each other?Due to its polarity And oxygens affinity for electronsWhat is cohesion? Think of examples of how the cohesiveness of water affectsbiological systems.cohesion - hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together Helps the transport of water against gravity in plantsRegarding water, what is adhesion and how does it interact with cohesion to drive water
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against the forces of gravity in plants?Adhesion is similar to cohesion but sticks to something other than waterAn attraction between different substances (i.e water and plant cell walls) What is the relationship between cohesion and surface tension?Cohesion creates surface tension Surface tension- measure of how hard it is for an organism to break the surfaceOf a liquid How does water moderate temperature?water absorbs heat from warmer air and releases heat to cooler airWhat is the relationship between kinetic energy and heat?Kinetic energy is the energy of motion Heat is a measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular energy What is a calorie and how is it related to specific heat?Calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by one-degree Celsius What effect does evaporation have on the temperature of the water’s surface?Evaporation reduces the temperature of the water’s surface (I.e evaporative cooling )How is the heat of vaporization related to evaporation?Heat of a liquid must absorb for 1g to be covered in gasHeat of vaporization - the heat a liquid must absorb to convert 1 g of liquid to gas Why does water expand upon freezing?The hydrogen bond arrangement in ice is more ordered than liquid water Therefore, ice is less dense and “expands” upon freezing What is a solution comprised of?A liquid that is homogeneous (equal) mixture of substancesWhy is water a versatile solvent?Due to its polarity, hydrogen bonds form easilyCan water also dissolve nonionic polar molecules?Yes, because it still polar Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances?Hydrophobic- repels water Hydrophilic- affinity to waterWhat do most biochemical reactions depend upon?Depends on collisions of molecules and therefore on the concentration of solutesValence electronsCan hydrogen atoms shift from one water molecule to another?
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