Super greenhouse scenario scenario 2 business as

Info icon This preview shows pages 81–94. Sign up to view the full content.

Super-greenhouse scenario Scenario 2: “Business as usual” No effort to reduce emissions All fossil fuel reserves burned 5,000 gigatonnes of additional CO 2 produced Mean T rise = 5-9°C Sea level rise = 60-70m (no ice caps) Scenario 1: Immediate, aggressive effort to reduce emissions 80% of fossil fuel reserves remain in the ground 1,000 Gigatonnes of CO 2 produced Mean global T rise = 2-4°C Sea level rise = 6-7m over several centuries
Image of page 81

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

The good news Even if all fossil fuel burning stopped today, there will be no more glaciations for at least 100,000 years! Some geologists have proposed the Anthropocene as a new Epoch = Industrial revolution - present period of human-influenced climate
Image of page 82
Ocean acidification = another effect of CO 2 pollution Dissolves in ocean --> carbonic acid Ocean pH in 1751: 8.25 in 1994: 8.14 – a 30% increase in H + conc. Organisms with shells made of CaCO 3 especially vulnerable 2 crystal forms: calcite and aragonite
Image of page 83

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Ocean acidification Aragonite close to (just over) saturation point at current ocean pH Orange = aragonite-saturated waters; Blue = undersaturated
Image of page 84
Ocean acidification Further acidification --> shells will dissolve Organisms with aragonite shells: all marine molluscs & corals; many crustaceans & echinoderms Orange = aragonite-saturated waters; Blue = undersaturated
Image of page 85

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Ocean acidification Pteropods = planktonic marine molluscs of the Antarctic Ocean Shells already showing signs of carbonic acid damage Damaged shell Normal shell
Image of page 86
Permian mass extinction The most severe in Earth’s history Massive volcanic eruptions in Siberia --> CO 2 release Marine species most severely affected > 95% wiped out Ocean acidification thought to have played a major role Acidification may represent a greater threat to biodiversity than climate change Recall
Image of page 87

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

However… Lab experiment: Mediterranean corals exposed to acidified conditions for 6 months Result: loss of exoskeleton - but polyps survived! Some shell- forming organisms may be able to survive without their shells Ocean acidification
Image of page 88
Kyoto Protocol 1997 International agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions Initially signed by 36 countries Overall target: reduce emissions to 5.2% below 1990 levels for the 5-year period from 2008-2012 Each country negotiated its own individual target Canada’s voluntary target: 6% below 1990 levels Ratified in 2002
Image of page 89

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Kyoto Protocol
Image of page 90
Heaviest component of crude oil Solid at room temperature Left behind when other components evaporate Can be converted into synthetic oil Bitumen a.k.a. tar, asphalt
Image of page 91

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Petroleum (crude oil) Hydrocarbon components : 1. Gasoline (lightest) main component = octane 2. Diesel trucks 3. Kerosene planes 4. Heavy oils ships, power plants 5. Asphalts (heaviest) a.k.a. tar, bitumen pavement, shingles, siding Absent in Alberta tar sands (once present but volatized off?)
Image of page 92
The Alberta Tar Sands (a.k.a. “oil sands”) 3 Main bitumen deposits: Peace river, Athabaska & Cold lake = approx 23% of Alberta’s surface area
Image of page 93

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 94
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern