Unfortunately, the ecological complex has not generally been used by human ecologistswithin sociology for approaching what they themselves have said was their fundamentaltask-- namely, "understanding how a population organizes itself in adapting to a constantlychanging yet restricting environment" (Berry & Kasarda 1977:12). Instead, sociologicalhuman ecologists have typically devoted their attention to social organization per se, ratherthan focusing on the role of organization (and technology) in enabling populations to adapt totheir environments. Furthermore, it has seemed to environmental sociologists that sociologicalhuman ecologists have tended either to ignore the physical environment (Choldin 1978a:355)or to neglect aspects of the ecosystem that are not human or derived from human action(Dunlap &Catton 1979; Molotch & Foiler 1971:15-16). Page | 8
Subscribe to view the full document.
Thus, "environment" in the ecological complex has been treated as a social, or at best spatial,variable--devoid of any physical substance (Michelson 1976:13-23). By giving that kind ofmeaning to "environment," sociological human ecologists have lacked a basis for becomingconcerned with contemporary environmental problems.In contrast to the organizational focus of sociological human ecology, the fundamentalcharacteristic of environmental sociology is the importance attached to the environment as afactor that may influence, and in turn be influenced by, human behavior (Catton & Dunlap1978a; Dunlap & Catton 1979; Schnalberg 1972; Zeisel 1975). Moreover, for environmentalsociologists, the "E" in the ecological complex denotes the physical environment rather thanthe social environment.The other three elements--P, T, and O - make up what Park (1936:15) called the "socialcomplex." Thus, environmental sociology examines the relationship between the physicalenvironment and the social complex. Just as biologists learned to see a biotic community andits environment as an ecosystem, so environmental sociologists can recognize Park s socialcomplex together with its environment as the entity Duncan s ecological complex wasdesigned to analyze.The proposed framework requires some elaboration of one element of the ecological complex,namely, organization." An understanding of all phases of human interaction with the physicalenvironment requires consideration not only of the organizational forms of humancollectivities, but also their shared cultural values and the personalities of their constituentmembers.Thus the sociologically familiar tripartite distinction of cultural system, social system, andpersonality system is substituted for the more general term social organization, or O. Eachelement in the resulting expanded version of Park s social complex--population, technology,cultural system, social system, and personality system can influence (and in turn be influencedby) the physical environment.
As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.
Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern
I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.
University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern
The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.