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could also provide insight into training needs or even developmental and enhancement opportunities to help encourage proper job performance or growth and advancement; furthermore, this type of reinforcing will help to promote positive performance results and decrease the possibility of negative performance issues. Enhancing organizational citizenship behaviors can be very beneficial in encouraging positive attitudes toward jobs and organizations.Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) in Store ManagementOrganizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) are concepts such as helping behaviors, civic virtues, and sportsmanship (Smither & London, 2009). One way to encourage OCB is to incorporate objectives that will strengthen interpersonal relationships between the store manager and his or her co-workers. Typically, employees look to their leaders for guidance, so leading by example is a very important strategy for encouraging OCB. Those that naturally have OCB behaviors are labeled as altruistic, so making sure to keep any type of drama to a minimum by
CHOOSING A MEASUREMENT APPROACH5specifically defining job requirements and goals, showing managers that the company sees the extra effort they put forth, and even presenting a healthy competition between stores can help to encourage an inclusive and organizational culture in the workplace and across the company. OCB behaviors are important because they also help in reducing the possibility of counterproductive workplace behaviors.Decreasing Counterproductive Workplace Behaviors“Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has been defined as ‘volitional acts that harm or intend to harm organizations and their stakeholders (for example, clients, co-workers, customers, and supervisors)’” (Smither & London, 2009, p. 360). Smither and London (2009) stated that there are at least five different dimensions regarding work behaviors that are counterproductive, such as abuse against others, sabotage, production deviance, withdrawal, and theft. Providing a personality test during the application process can help to assess one’s personality and determine whether he or she may have CWB tendencies (Greenidge, Devonish, & Alleyne, 2014). Studies show that a relationship exists between performance and emotional intelligence regarding job satisfaction; therefore, strategies should be implemented to properly train employees at all levels of an organization to help prevent maladaptive behaviors and encourage the same level of emotional intelligence across the whole organization (Greenidge, Devonish, & Alleyne, 2014). Self-management training may also be beneficial in reducing CWB because it