here occupational status or a Methodist who converts to LutheranismoVertical social mobility, in contrast, refers to the rise or fall of an individual (or group) from one social stratum to anotherWe can further distinguish two types of vertical mobility: ascending and descending (upwardand downward)oAn individual who is experiencing ascending vertical mobility either rises from a lower stratum to a higher one or creates an entirely new group that exists at a higher stratumMost sociologists concerned with studying mobility focus on the process of individual mobility These studies generally fall into two types: o1. Mobility tables (matrices)o2. Status attainment modelsWhen constructing a mobility table, along the left-most column of the grid, list a number of occupations for people’s fathersoAcross the top, list the same occupational categories for the sons (the respondents) oThere can be as many or as few categories as you see fit, so long as they are consistent for the parental and child generations Structural mobilityis mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy Exchange mobility is mobility in which, if we hold fixed the changing distribution of jobs, individuals trade jobs not one-to-one but in a way that ultimately balances outHistorically the United States has enjoyed an advantage in growth-induced upward mobility; as the farm and blue-collar sectors withered and white-collar jobs expanded, sons and daughters of manual workers have, by necessity, experienced a degree of upward occupational mobilityStatus attainment modelis an approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and educational attainment, and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations Unlike mobility tables, the status-attainment model allows sociologists to study some of the intervening processesThe status-attainment model is an elastic one that allows researchers to throw in new factors as they arise and see how they affect the relationships between parents’ and children’s occupational prestigeConclusionToday the majority of Americans are no longer positive about the possibility of upward mobilityRVCHAPTER SEVEN: STRATIFICATION
Only 1/3 of Americans thought that their children would be better off than they were, and in 2012 only 24% of Americans believed that they themselves have achieved the American dreamMore Americans thatn20 years ago believe it possible to start at the bottom and work your way to the topPeople generally believe that hard work and education are more important than social connections or a wealthy backgroundRVCHAPTER SEVEN: STRATIFICATION
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