Copy of Anthro 41A Final Review.docx

Bourgeoisie gain political power for themselves in

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bourgeoisie gain political power for themselves in the new capitalist nation-states (such as what happened in The Dutch Republic). Bourgeoisie: This is the New rising middle class whom have risen as a result of colonialism and the conquest of the new world. Empowered by the teachings of John Calvinist, they will eventually seek and fight for political power in W. Europe o Examples include: The formation of Dutch Republic The English Civil War (Puritan Rebellion) led by Oliver Cromwell The Glorious Revolution of 1688 King Henry VIII—1491-1547: The English King Became incredibly wealthy by confiscating all of the Church property. Declared England to no longer be Catholic, taking away the Popes authority, declaring himself the head of England so that he could divorce his wife Wives in order: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour
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King Edward VI—1537-1553: When Henry VIII dies, this son becomes the King of England at the age of 9 (1547) King Edward is the child of King Henry VIII’s third wife Dies at the age of 15 and names his cousin, Lady Jane Grey (17 years old), his successor (1553) Lady Jane Grey ruled for 9 days before Mary I (Bloody Mary) overthrew her and executed her at the Tower of London (beheaded for treason) Bloody Mary—1516-1558: The daughter of Henry VIII + Catherine of Argon- She rules for 5 years o Marries Emperor Charles V and Phillip II Together they reinstitute Catholicism in England o Kills Protestants o Forces England to become Catholic again o Dies from cancer and Elizabeth becomes queen Queen Elizabeth I—1533-1603: The daughter of Henry VIII and second wife, Anne Boleyn Takes throne after Mary dies, converts England from Catholicism to Protestantism and kills Catholics This is unsuccessful and England becomes a major Protestant naval power Phillip II: King of Spain o Sends his Navy against the Dutch Republic and England in 1588 o Huge storm destroys much of Spanish Armada and the Dutch Republic and England defeats Spain Dutch Republic: The lower countries (Netherlands + Belgium) declared independence from Phillip II w the Act of Abjuration- Couldn't find ruler so became a REPUBLIC- w/ wealthy middle class called STATES GENERAL (mostly Calvinists) o Was a MERITOCRACY- The wealthy nobles as well as capitalists passed laws promoting trade and business in their mutual favor & poor were excluded from power o FIRST EXAMPLE OF A CAPITALIST NATION Spanish Armada: Phillip II sends ships to destroy English and Dutch Protestantism - a storm wipes out half the navy, the other half is defeated by Elizabeth I; England becomes most powerful navy force Both England and the Spanish Armada remain Protestant and free from Phillip II’s rule John Calvin—1509:
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Protestant Created Calvinism Promoted the ideas: o Predestination—God has preordained who will get into Heaven o Protestant Ethic—Hard work and the accumulation of wealth was viewed as a sign of God’s approval o Ungodly kings should not be obeyed
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