5 general classes of precipitation wet 200 cm

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5 general classes of precipitation: - Wet: >200 cm precipitation - Humid: 100 - 200 cm - Subhumid: 50 – 100 cm - Semiarid: 25 – 50 cm - Arid: 0 – 25 cm Helps define precipitation regions Climate Classification Systems - There are a number of climate classification systems - Koppen most widely used Global climate patterns key to biomes and species distribution!!!!! Coastal-continental locations show smaller annual variation in temperature Temperature and Elevation Local Climate Modifiers
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Geomorphic Factors (Landform) - Slope steepness o Rate at which precipitation is drained from surface o Rapid erosion which may result in thin soil - Slope aspect (orientation relative to direction) o South facing is warmer and drier o South facing aspect can push tree line boundaries Edaphic Factors (soil) - Broad and localized patterns - Hans Jenny (1941) – “Factors of Soil Formation” 1) Climate 2) Organisms 3) Topography 4) Weathering 5) Time - Each defines the state and history of soil systems – state factors KNOW THESE – hierarchical classification of soils in Canada? Chernozenic, Brunisotic, Luvisotic, Podsotic, Crysotic Energy Capture – Ecosystems and Biomes Vary - Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) o The total energy fixed by photosynthesis – by a plan, and ecosystem etc - Net Primary Productivity (NPP) o Measure of the rate that solar energy is converted to living biomass (tissue) Remember respiration and decay Forest definitions 1. Defined forests a lot by physical measurement/characteristics - Total area (extent) - Total edge - The height of trees - The percent canopy cover 2. Definitions can also consider the history of forest disturbance, succession and age - Primary, secondary and mature forest succession - Primary, secondary or Old Growth Forests Changes in vegetation (cover) can also influence climate - Changes in albedo - Change in effective rainfall (interception) - Urban heat islands Conceptual model of biogeographic patterns - Influence of “ecosystem engineers” on geographic template - Interactions among species - Response of biotas (adaptation, dispersal, evolution, extinction)
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- Geographic template (climate, soil etc) - Temporal dynamics of the geographic template (plate tectonics, sea level, climate, orogeny) Habitats - Subdivisions of the environment – specialized organisms or groups of organisms Bioclimactic Factors - Every species has stress limits – when exceeded they threaten survival - In trees these stress limits are commonly associated with climate differences in ; - Light (solar radiation) - Temperature - Moisture - Wind - Some species limits fall within a range of climate patterns - The geographic boundaries of climate patterns can sometimes indicate potential distribution of a species or group of species Takeaways - Climate classification systems are largely based on temperature and precipitation trends - Local climate (micro-climate) modifiers can alter large scale trends – importance of looking at things at different scales - Local topography and characteristics can have abiotic-abiotic and abiotic-biotic interactions eg. Soil state factors -
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