In August, 1883, 3 small eruptions we succeeded by a final colossal eruption that triggered a tsunami.1.The tsunami waves were up to 100 feet high!2.The waves destroyed 295 towns and villages.3.36, 417 people drowned.4.During the highly explosive eruption >2/3 of the island was obliteratedThe exploded material collapsed and rapidly displaced the sea floor, triggering a tsunami.ii.How did this happen?5.Tsunami at Krakatau (Krakatoa)Drawing of Krakatau pre-eruption. Notice the immense height captured by the artist. From "The Illustrated London News" 8/9/1883 i. Volcanoes Page 13
The exploded material collapsed and rapidly displaced the sea floor, triggering a tsunami. ii. A caldera was also created. iii. Computer simulation of the tsunami: (CC, no audible words, just readable text) iv. Water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide are the 3 most abundant gases released by volcanic eruptions. 1. Water vapor causes no ill effects. 2. This occurred at Lake Nyos, Cameroon. i. Volcanic carbon dioxide is released into the lake periodically by eruptions. The carbon dioxide remains in the bottom of the lake until a "turnover" event occurs. Whereupon a cloud of the gas was released. ii. 1,700 people suffocated. iii. 3,500 livestock died iv. Carbon dioxide can be a problem. It is denser than the surrounding air, and can silently move from an eruption site, hugging the terrain as it flows. It is only dangerous in that it displaces the surrounding atmosphere, pushing oxygen out. 3. Sulfur dioxide is a problem and is produced in significant quantities by Kilauea Volcano. It creates a volcanic smog called VOG . 4. Volcanic Gases Gas Kill "Tml15-16 Nc" by United States Geological Survey - United States Geological Survey. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - "Cow killed by Lake Nyos gasses" by Photo by Jack Lockwood of the US Geological Survey. - volc_images/africa/nyos.html . Ash Clouds NASA's Terra satellite flew over the Eyjafjallajokull Volcano, Iceland, on May 6 at 11:55 UTC (7:55 a.m. EDT). Credit: NASA/Goddard/MODIS Rapid Response Team Pasted from < > Ash clouds rise high into the atmosphere. 1. Ash Clouds Volcanoes Page 14
Ash clouds rise high into the atmosphere. 1. Ash clouds create their own weather, including lightning. 2. Ash can circle the globe for years, causing an overall decrease in global temperature. 3. When Krakatau erupted in Indonesia, 1883, the skies turned red in Norway and New York City. i. Ash can dramatically change the color of sunsets. 4. The ash can abrade, or erode the leading edges of aircraft wings (very bad as this provides lift. i. When it enters an engine it can erode metal and clog fuel and cooling systems, and even melt to form a glassy coating on engine parts. ii. Ash can disrupt air traffic. The images of Eyjafjallajokull, above, show the ash plume from the 2011 eruptions and how the plume disrupted air traffic. 5. To learn more about the hazards of ash: and 6. Volcanoes Page 15
Other types of volcanic landforms that you might see during
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- Spring '17
- Jennifer Barson