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All publications were done in that language, and this had a remarkably homogenizing effect, as everyone read the same thing at the same time. More reading = larger and moreabsolute control of people.73. Vernacularization and nationalismIt was an act of overcoming differences in regional dialects by subscribing everyone to one official language. One vernacular dialect as the language of power. By creating a common dialect, the power of nationalism is further enhanced because knowledge can be spread faster and with ease. Reinterpretations and translations, often times lose context of a story or message, therefore common vernacular institutes greater unity among communities because everyone will receive the same information.The Ideology of the Nation74. Reaction to Napoleonic conquestsThe Napoleonic conquests provoked a change in nationalism for nationalistic defiance against the Napoleonic invasions whereas prior to the 19thcentury. Nationalism was more so affiliated with religion.75. Clemens von MetternichHe shaped a new Europe after Napoleon, suppressed the nationalistic aspirations of german speaking people, and divided German speaking areas into 39 different states. 76. Balance of power systemMetternich wanted to restore Europe to the status quo before the Napoleonic wars. Therefore he wanted a balance of power between Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria. France no longer included. 77. John Gottfried HerderHe was a poet, coined the term Volkheist, which was the unique spirit intrinsic to all Germans and promoted nationalism.
MMW14 Final Review GuideVolkgeist is meant “spirit of the people” and was the word Herder used to rally the German people. Shared art, land, pop culture, lit.78. Johann Gottlieb Fichte“Addresses to the German Nation”. These were reactions to Napoleon’s occupation of Berlin. He said the german people had mythological, invisible bonds and showed a creative mythology of an anachronistic German past and history.Invisible bonds of Germans mean Germans all bonded no matter where they are. It all comes from the law of nature. Language commonality and physical features matters as well.Germanic tribal legacy: they would rather die than become half Roman. German ancestors suffered and worked to create Germany. They thanked ancestors for propagating the idea of nationalism and identity.79. Otto von BismarckHe was appointed by King Wilhelm, and became chancellor of Germany in 1862.He also had a blood and iron agenda in which he expanded the Prussian army to become Europe’s best. He defeated Denmark, Austria, and France.80. Unification under the Second ReichKaiser Wilhelm declared Prussia as the second Reich, the first being the Holy Roman Empire. This signaled a shift from the German nation as an idea to the German nation as a reality.