Ii the atomic number of chlorine is 17 write the

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ii) The atomic number of chlorine is 17. Write the electronic arrangement of a chlorine atom. b) Chlorine reacts with hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride, HCl. Draw an electron diagram of a hydrogen chloride molecule, showing outermost shell electrons only. (Edexcel GCSE (Higher Tier), Chemistry, Unit C2, Mar. 2012, 4(a), (c)) 18 Phosphorus trichloride, PCl 3 , is a covalent compound. a) Give a reason why the bond between phosphorus and chlorine is covalent. b) Complete the diagram below to show the outermost shell arrangement of electrons in phosphorus trichloride. $M 1 $M $M (Edexcel GCE O Level, Paper 2, Jan. 2010, 4(b)) 19 a) Explain how the atoms are held together by the covalent bond in a molecule of hydrogen. b) Draw electron diagrams of the following species, showing electrons in the outermost shells only. i) Methane, CH 4 ii) Ethene, CH 2 = CH 2 iii) Nitrogen, N 2 iv) Ammonium ion, NH 4 + (Edexcel Advanced Subsidiary GCE, Unit 1, May 2012, 26(a)–(b)) 20 a) The table below gives information about two isotopes of hydrogen, hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2. Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Atomic number 1 1 Mass number 1 2 An atom of hydrogen-1 is represented as 1 1 H. Show how an atom of hydrogen-2 is represented. b) Calculate the relative molecular mass of water, H 2 O. (Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16.0) c) Molecules of heavy water contain two atoms of hydrogen-2 instead of two atoms of hydrogen-1. Explain why a molecule of heavy water has more mass than a normal water molecule. You should refer to the particles in the nucleus of the two different hydrogen atoms in your answer. (AQA GCSE (Higher Tier), Chemistry, Unit 2, Jan. 2010, 3(a)–(b)(i), (c)) Refer to page T37. Refer to page T38. Isotopes of chlorine exist. 2,8,7 The bond is formed between two non-metals. * $M 17 b) 2 1 H 2 x 1.0 + 16.0 = 18.0 An atom of hydrogen-2 has a neutron while an atom of hydrogen-1 has none.
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Topic 2 Microscopic World I 130 Unit Exercise 21 Chemists have developed models for bonding and structure which are used to explain different properties. a) Ammonia, NH 3 , is a covalent compound. i) Explain what is meant by a ‘covalent bond’. ii) Draw an electron diagram to show the bonding in NH 3 , showing electrons in the outermost shells only. b) Ammonia reacts with hydrogen chloride, HCl, to form ammonium chloride, NH 4 Cl. NH 4 Cl is an ionic compound containing NH 4 + and Cl ions. i) Write down the electronic arrangement of the Cl ion. ii) Draw an electron diagram to show the bonding in NH 4 + , showing electrons in the outermost shells only. (OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE, Chem. A, F321, Jan. 2009, 2(a)(i)–(ii), (b)(i)–(ii)) 22 When H + ions react with H 2 O molecules, H 3 O + ions are formed. Name the type of bond formed when H + ions react with H 2 O molecules. Explain how this type of bond is formed in the H 3 O + ion. (AQA Advanced Subsidiary GCE, Unit 1, Jan. 2010, 3(e)) 23 Carbon forms an oxide called carbon monoxide (CO). A dative covalent bond exists between the two atoms.
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