of exporters and importers in addition to being meticulously regulated from a

Of exporters and importers in addition to being

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of exporters and importers, in addition to being meticulously regulated from a purely commercial point of view, is also subject to a conglomeration of rules that facilitate or hinder its implementation in harmony with national interests, economic and political nature. Customs tariffs and trade treaties are the most effective instruments used by governments to hinder the inflow of random or competing for foreign goods and the exit of necessary raw materials
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4 Federico Toschi and to facilitate the placement of domestic products and the import of goods needed for consumption or production. Many other measures flank the general directives, supporting producers against foreign competition, directing and encouraging exports with prizes, tax exemptions and competitions of various kinds. Among the barriers to entry and exit of certain goods, import and export bans, both total and partial, deserve special mention. Common to all countries and at all times are bans for health reasons. More important, however, are the bans of an economic nature, which are used by countries when high customs duties and strict customs formalities are not sufficient barriers to the import of defective products and to the export of goods that can be used to advantage in the internal market. This is certainly not a new institution of origin, because governments almost always resort to bans on the entry and, above all, on the exit of goods in times of war and famine, especially in order to reserve food and, first and foremost, cereals for domestic consumption. ("Import and Export regulations") Prohibitions and restrictions were also widely applied in general at a time when mercantilist theories prevailed: prohibitions primarily concerning imports and inspired by the exaggerated fear of the economic consequences of a deficit trade balance. ITALY INTERNATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES & REGULATIONS
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5 Federico Toschi In Italy, too, the war had given new impetus to import and export bans. Soon, however, with autonomous provisions or as a consequence of trade treaties, import bans were almost entirely abolished. The few still nominally in force and destined to the defense of typical national productions (grapes, wines and liqueurs, Sulphur, electricity) or the protection of specific industries (automobile, explosive products, perfumery, weaving and embroidery, toys, hats, woodworking, glass, paper) were neutralized by the numerous general and contingent derogations. The export prohibitions are now also limited to very few products. However, they have a more comprehensive economic scope than import prohibitions, thus integrating the scarce exit permits into reserving its few raw materials for Italy. ("Trade Regulations and Standards in Italy") The most notable among these are the bans on scrap metal (to avoid that competition from foreign hoarders would cause a price increase that would severely damage Italian industrialists), rags (to the benefit of the paper industry), wheat (to protect the milling industry), tobacco (to defend domestic manufacturing), raw hides and skins (to the tanning industry and skins in general). These
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